WL041513 Cost Accounting for the Life Cycle of Coal
Coal代写 Question 1：The life cycle of coal starts with extraction, then processing, and transportation and ends with combustion.
Question 1 Coal代写
The life cycle of coal starts with extraction, then processing, and transportation and ends with combustion. The life cycle has been found to have waste streams that are hazardous to the health and the environment. Coal produces twice as more CO2 produced by burning natural gas. Besides carbon dioxide emission, coals extraction is associated with disruption of streams, dust, methane gas, deforestation, cause precarious dumps, landscape deformation, and increase soil erosion. In this regard, coal extraction causes water contamination from impoundments left in the sites, and chemical wastes slurry containing heavy metals.
Coal extraction is also blamed for the loss and degradation of habitats from mountaintop removal and hence disrupting the ecosystem and biodiversity. At the time of processing, coal release carcinogens and combustion wastes that is a mixture of toxic chemicals and heavy metals. Transportation of coal causes road hazards and dust to the neighbouring communities. On the other hand, combustion produces a wide range of air pollution, including emission of CO2, NOx, SO2 among other gases. Overall, the life cycle of coal is associated with greenhouse effects and changing climate. It also causes a change in average temperature and precipitation.
Question 2 Coal代写
The coal life cycle has economic, social and environmental impacts. Economically, coal extraction requires federal and states subsidies, cause loss of tourists and reduce property value because of the loss of biodiversity and aesthetic value of the land. The government spend taxpayer money to monitor and rehabilitate MTR mines. Coal mining is also associated with damage of farmland and crops and forests. Coal transportation on the other and increase wear and tear of roads and railroads. These are opportunity costs investing renewable energy such as wind and solar power. Coal代写
Similarly, the coal life cycle has social impacts. The mining pollution is associated with an increase in mortality and morbidity rate in communities living around the mines. Abandoned mining sites pose threats of injury to people living near them. Excavated waste form slurry that contaminates water, and heaps that block streams. The sludge is harmful to human health. Overall, coal mining, processing and combustion primarily cause injuries, death and diseases to communities living around.
Lastly, coal mining and processing have raised environmental concerns. Coal is one of the main contributors to climate change through greenhouse emissions, such as methane and carbon dioxide. Coal extraction, processing and combustion also cause deforestation, loss of animal and plant habitat, acid drainage, and water pollution. There are also traces of heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, and selenium during combustion. These pollutants are harmful to animals and plant and disrupt the ecosystem
Epstein, P. R., Buonocore, J. J., Eckerle, K., Hendryx, M., Stout Iii, B. M., Heinberg, R., … & Doshi, S. K. (2011). Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1219(1), 73.