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Media Analysis

Mass media is an essential tool for influencing peoples minds. Daily newspapers, magazines, media clips, social network posts are the means of promoting a particular thought or belief among society. Since the very first emergence of media, people have noticed the significance and power of this means, which became a logical reason for them to consider its efficiency and productivity. On the one hand, periodically published articles and uploaded videos help their creators gather a group of same-thinking people and unite them under a single idea. In many cases, it contributes to the formation of a particular social movement which may have a positive effect on the general wellbeing of citizens. On the other hand, mass media means play a negative role because of being manipulated by influential political figures which follow individual interests. Considering the labor crisis in North America, mass media is divided into two different sides, either free from political interest or dependent of it, which determine the further role of the services in regard to providing information about this issue from the different points of view with the aim to manipulate public mind.
As one of the fundamental civil rights, the right for a free press turns out to be violated within a propaganda model. This is an analytical framework which was created with the aim to examine the very essence of the relationship between the US media and institutions or individuals who show direct or indirect relevance to their final product (Herman & Chomsky, 1988). Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky created and presented the propaganda model to the whole world in 1988. They revealed many left intentions of social and political institutions to finance media in purpose to promote their particular ideology and provide it to the public. Significantly, the PM highlights the selection of right-thinking personnel and by the editors’ and working journalists’ internalization of priorities and definitions of newsworthiness that conform to the institution’s policy (Herman & Chomsky, 1988, p. xi). Therefore, the right for free press undergoes a significant modification in terms of media transparency and independence, which emerges as an implicit phenomenon.
In spite of the primary objective of the media to shed light on the truth about daily sociopolitical and cultural events as well as long term conflicts within a country, the press tends to extract a double benefit from it. In particular, information warfare is a common phenomenon of the mass media activity which reflects the confrontation between political players. It is a complex of actions used by the parties opposing each other to achieve specific goals (Herman & Chomsky, 1988). Usually, the purpose of the information warfare is to achieve informational superiority over the enemy and the formation of an information environment that would facilitate the implementation of other, non-informative, political, diplomatic, or economic actions. Depending on its primary purpose, information wars affect the credibility of facts, resources, and technical systems. However, the means and methods of conducting information warfar, according to Martins Five frames, are primarily aimed at the individual and mass consciousness of people in order to change their beliefs, views, values, to cause a suitable mood, for example, fear or panic, and ultimately, to influence behavior (Martin, C. R., 2004). The goal is to affect the consciousness and will of the enemy and use propaganda.
It is imperative to consider the terms propaganda and manipulation which are often used synonymously, but this is not entirely correct. Mainly, propaganda aims to get a particular pattern of behavior: to overdo the indicators in work, to fight for the state or faith, to support the party or government (Campbell, Martin & Fabos, 2011). But there can be things like washing hands before dinner or not using drugs. That is, propaganda may well fit ones interests and needs. Remarkably, it is not always dishonest or harmful to people. And it is not necessarily connected with lies.
Instead, manipulation is already a distortion of information, creating an inadequate picture of the world in a persons head; cultivating artificial needs, which imply what one does not need, but the manipulator makes it vital for them, to make them work in the direction necessary for an interested side (Herman & Chomsky, 1988). The manipulator knows about ones needs and weaknesses, fears and complexes well. They are aware of what and how people say things or how to inspire action. The manipulators will find time and space to achieve their ultimate goals most effectively. In reality, propagandists often resort to manipulations. That is why these words are often treated as synonyms.
In North America, for instance, this tendency may be described in the context of a constant confrontation between the Republican and Democrat Parties. The way these political players confront with one another juxtaposes on the working conditions of a particular magazine editorial or news service. Such a paradigm of the media-politics relations positions the influential figures in the first place and provides them with an unlimited variety of opportunities to affect the public mind (Herman & Chomsky, 1988). At this context, raises the question of how such an independent service like mass media allows itself to fall under the influence of politically interested individuals and groups. The answer is more than clear: money. Undoubtedly, political structures can use it as significant leverage for buying the medias freedom. But this framework is not as simple as it looks. Further meta-analysis will demonstrate it.
Citizens of North America, especially the United States, encounter a critical labor issue for an extended period. The problem of employment and low wage is spread among the low and middle working class, and even former prisoners. Taking the international edition of The Guardian daily newspaper, it can be stated for sure that there is a significant difference between the general description of news and the Opinion rubric, like a shred of direct evidence suggested by Christopher Martin (Campbell, Martin & Fabos, 2011). At the same time, such a pattern is noticeable for other newspapers and magazines which follow different goals by posting articles on particular topics. It is the Opinion rubric which reveals the truth on various events and helps people develop their own perspective on a certain issue. Simultaneously, other rubrics which offer daily news may provide a secondary point of view which satisfies a political interest.
Moving back to the US labor issues, there have been a number of news and opinion articles in The Guardian newspaper regarding the job crisis. The first article published three years ago shed light on the slavery-like working conditions for inmates in the US (Kutsch, 2016). The news piece states that the wage of inmates varies between 12 and 40 cents an hour while prisoners of other states receive zero salaries for their work (Kutsch, 2016). Such discrimination led to the emergence of many strikes which occurred in Alabama and became known as the Free Alabama Movement (Kutsch, 2016). Overall, this piece of news appears to provide a piece of general information about the labor issue amid the inmate employees. At the same time, however, one may have a closer look at the goal of this article. For this reason, it is necessary to analyze the second piece of news.
Levins article, Immigration crackdown enables worker exploitation, labor department staff say (2017), discusses a previous period of the employment scandal, which set a specific context for the further events within it. As a Republican, President Trump and his administration had decided to reduce freedom of illegal immigrants who live in the US. Such a policy served as an additional factor for limiting working opportunities of the undocumented residents. In this context, it is necessary to notice the problem of relations between Republican political figures and the US Department of Labor (DoL). Considering DoL is supposed to operate independently from immigration authorities, it causes an adverse effect on all cooperation between these subjects by ruining its primary principles (Levin, 2017). Therefore, in this case, it is possible to argue that Levins article turns out to be a Democratic-oriented piece which contradicts Republican-oriented solutions to it.
Further, to have in-depth insight into the American labor problem, it is imperative to compare the ordinary news article like the two articles above in the essay which not only discusses facts from one side or another but provides an interpretation of the issue considering real context. The Opinion article Organized labor’s decline in the US is well-known. But what drove it? created by Richard Wolff does not undergo Herman and Chomskys propaganda model because, directly speaking, it was not bought. Wolff argues that the New Deal’s enemies big business, Republicans, conservatives had developed a coordinated strategy by the late 1940s. In the modern world, the character of labor transforms from a collective into an individual, and it is relevant to the emergence of the trend of the creation of workers self-directed enterprises (WSDEs) (Wolff, 2013). The transition has also aligned with Martins ideology filter in enhancing individuals democratic rights. As alternatives to regular employment, these types of business are focused on the creation of a new alliance among willing labor unions, community organizations and social movements (Wolff, 2013). WSDEs are considered to be a new democratic approach toward the organization of labor in the US, which encompasses efforts of local communities, labor unions as well as the social movements (Wolff, 2013). Workers self-directed enterprises are the environments where employees may feel comfortable in regard to their socioeconomic position. In essence, these social units help workers control their revenue and workload as well as choose primary conditions for their enterprise, which gives them full freedom of actions.
A discussion of the media propaganda conception presupposes the politically-oriented shred of news to be compared to the free content. Wolffs article is independent of interest as it includes no implicit or even explicit reference to a political figure or sector. Instead of using different methods to uphold the position of either a Democrat or a Republican, Wolff mentions both of them by arguing that these parties increasingly cannot or will not serve average Americans’ economic needs. With such an outcome, it is clear that the journalist is willing to shed light on the real actions of the individuals and political communities which have significant relevance to the American work crisis.
Further, Wolff makes a valuable claim that the Democrats and Republicans still took advantage of the creation of the workers self-directed enterprises, which helps him demonstrate a rather critical approach to analyzing political activity. Although it takes Wolff almost half of the article to explain the relationship between these two strategic players, Wolff has managed to accomplish his goal. The authors main argument lies in the description of the recent alliances between workers self-directed enterprises and those boards and shareholders who were put in their specific places to control the plan on ruining the principles of the New Deal during the last four decades (Wolff, 2013). Finally, Wolff confirms that uniting social collectives with participants of various social movements requires the consideration of WSDEs.
The article of Wolff exemplifies an unlimited perspective of the journalist who is not willing to follow one particular political side because of being manipulated by it. At the same time, however, Wolff reveals the fact that the Republicans are those who manipulate by social and economic trends in the United States to meet their personal interests on the political stage. In regard to the media coverage, the author of this article shows an independent approach toward the examination of facts (Levin, 2017). Ultimately, Wolffs publication is a directly opposite piece of news to that one which undergoes the political influence with the aim to promote certain propaganda.
On the other hand, the article of Mike Elk titled The teachers’ strikes prove it: the media is finally seeing America’s new labor landscape (2018) reveals American job crisis from a different perspective. Considering the primary argument of the article is to uplift the image of labor unions, Elk has used Nissan scandal as the direct means to accomplish his goal. In particular, the journalist described the situation with the Nissan company which utilized inappropriate tools to defeat the union while it subjected the latter to vote for the organization (Elk, 2018). During a campaign, Nissan affected the reputation of the employers who voted against the company by using adverse media coverage.
All in all, the media plays the role of a determinant of the character and the ultimate purpose of providing society with information about significant daily events. From the meta-analysis, it is clear that many newspaper articles reflect an implicit political interest toward promoting a particular ideology, needed to accomplish goals within a specific political discourse. In this case, the propaganda model of Herman and Chomsky is the most appropriate analytical framework to explain the milestones of such a phenomenon. While one media means has an independent position in telling the truth about the life of the US citizens, another focuses on the manipulation of public opinion. Nevertheless, people should be aware of the propaganda model used in mass media in delivering messages that the ones at the top of the hierarchy want to express; and it is essential for the individuals to rationally determine whether the media is illustrating the fact or paneling the consensus towards the results they are aiming for.

References
Campbell, R., Martin, C., & Fabos, B. (2011). Media & culture (8th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
Martin, C. R. (2004). Framed!: Labor and the Corporate Media. Ithaca, N.Y. : ILR Press.

Elk, M. (2018). The teachers’ strikes prove it: the media is finally seeing America’s new labor landscape. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/apr/28/us-teachers-strikes-workers-labor-unions
Herman, E., & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing consent. Pantheon Books: New York.
Kutsch, T. (2016). Inmates strike in prisons nationwide over ‘slave labor’ working conditions. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/sep/09/us-nationwide-prison-strike-alabama-south-carolina-texas
Levin, S. (2017). Immigration crackdown enables worker exploitation, labor department staff say. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/mar/30/undocumented-workers-deportation-fears-trump-administration-department-labor
Wolff, R. (2013). Organized labor’s decline in the US is well-known. But what drove it?. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/sep/02/labor-unions-decline-can-turnaround

Labour And Working-Class Portrayal in The Media

Labour And Working-Class Portrayal in The Media Research Paper

Introduction
The mainstream media is a powerful tool in the society that has employed its ability to inform in manners that people can barely understand. The huge pieces of information received by media houses are supposed to be disseminated and used in informing the world adequately. However, adequate dissemination of information is not always the case. The mainstream media has been known to set the agenda for the public. That is, the media decides what people may like and displays just what they think interests people more. Amidst doing so, they circumvent pieces of information that would otherwise revitalize how society is structured and how people view particular socio-political or economic prospects. One demographic segment that has been a victim of agenda setting is the working class. In every economy, the working class represents the dominant faction of the population. Such individuals are, however, accorded the least consideration, mostly, in media coverage. One is then let to ask just how the working class has formed the small fraction of the news that barely interests the media. Using the propaganda model and Martins five frames, this paper explores how the Canadian popular culture has depicted labor and working class in a variety of mediums in the famous 2009 Vale-Inco strike. This analysis is integral because it unearths how the media influences agenda when it comes to aspects of working class including the development of policies and the influence on public opinion.

Background
Vales Canadian mining and smelting operations in Port Colborne and Sudbury ha became famous for what the media has termed as the wrong reasons. In 1978, Inco was broiled in a strike that lasted for 261 days (Geological Survey, 2012). In that labor strike, around 11,600 employees were determined to revitalize the companys resilience towards cuts of pay and layoffs emanating from lowering nickel prices in the international market. The strike was, hence, characterized by the move by management to cut their operational costs to match the diminishing returns (Morrison, 2011). Workers who did not like the ideas resorted to strikes through their unions and rendered themselves into nine months of the strike without pay. The strike would be solved, and every individual returned to his/her work station. That did not mark the end of labor problems at Inco. 2009 marked the longest strike that the company has ever faced. The strike lasted for more than a year with more than 3,100 employees involved (Geological Survey, 2012). The duration of the strike was linked to the resolve by both warring factions not to compromise on their demands. The strike would go in history as one of Canadas longest. The case does not end at that point though. Of importance was the portrayal that the media, specifically the print media showcased concerning that strike.
The latest Vale-Inco strike was anchored on legitimate grounds if the demands of the employees were anything to believe. In 2006, Vale S.A acquired Inco, the Canadian mining giant for $19.4 billion (Morrison, 2011). At the time of the acquisition, Vale was already an international player whose presence could be felt in numerous countries including Angola, Brazil, Peru, Chile, and Indonesia among others. In other words, Vale faced competition for its mining activities throughout the globe. Conversely, Inco was a local Canadian company whose operations barely exceeded the borders. Incos domestic operations were efficient because the company faced little competition. The fact that the entity faced little competition meant that all its profits would be directed into operations and payment of wages. The acquisition by Vale came with newer strategies that would lead to the cause of the strikes. Two years after Vales takeover, Inco had made an excess of $4 billion in profits (Jones, 2016). That money would be adequate in running its operations. However, Vale, in the same duration, was making losses following the intensified competition from other global players. In a strategic move, the parent company opted to use Incos lucrative profits to position itself in the global market. That move would lead Inco with nothing to show for its efficient operations. When Inco could not match the profit demands by Vale, it resorted to a strategic move that would mean downsizing. That is, the numbers of employees would be reduced while wages are also cut to accommodate the operational costs. Such a move would have only saved the company in the short-term, and the affected employees would not appreciate any step towards the reduction of their wages. Through the Ontario Federation of Labor (OFL) and the United Steel Workers (USW), 3,300 employees would immediately be rendered into a strike following the decision by the company to pursue the ill strategy of downsizing. The striking employees wanted lasting solutions about downsizing. The demand would eventually escalate to accommodate the need for better working conditions and adequate healthcare coverage for the employees.

Media Coverage
Different media houses took the opportunity to report on matters affecting Vale-Inco differently. For purposes of specificity, this paper will focus on print media and the online blogs on their portrayal of the 2009 Vale-Inco strike. The first among the representations was depicted by Carl Bronskys article for the World Socialist Website. In that article titled Vale Inco strike: Labor bureaucrats promote nationalism, the author makes every attempt to ensure that the information portrayed efficiently contradicts the agenda set by the striking employees. Primarily, Bronsky (2009) assert that the strike was orchestrated by bureaucrats whose primary objective was to initiate and promote unhealthy nationalism within Canada. Canada is a nation that is well built in the foundations of capitalism. Canadians structurally operate to encourage upward economic mobility through individual inputs. Typically, every attempt to revitalize this structure affect the very foundations of Canadian economics and politics. In that sense, if OFL and USW leaders were only attempting to trigger the roots of socialism, then they were fast becoming the enemies of Canada. Bronsky (2009) continued to note that bureaucracy was quickly destroying the grips that initially anchored trade unions. The current structures within trade unions are focused on nothing but power struggles with the leaders attempting to showcase their power and authority to the public. If that were the case, then the strike was grounded on wrong reasons.
The article further delved into the possible political and social consequences in which the strike would indulge the nation. On the social aspect, Bronsky (2009) notes that Canadians will most likely begin to profile the striking workers are indifferent people. The author implies that the strike would create a working-class nationalist movement that would anchor all its authority into the economic structures that the nation had abolished. The article continued to praise the few clerks and company workers who were not part of the unions as the true reflections of the Canadian labor spirits. The ultimate implications of the publication were rooted in the probable political motives of the strike. Bronsky (2009) continues to point Newman, the USW chairman, as an individual who intends to capture public attention through unacceptable ways. Newman was a champion of the strike and planned to end the strike only if the union and Vale-Inco found a lasting solution to the impasse between the striking employees and the organizations top leadership. Through the lenses of the author, however, Newman intended to be a politician and used the strike as a platform to steer his agenda. The article manifested little focus on the needs of the striking employees and it barely even talked about the possible causes of the strike. The article would efficiently qualify as biased.
The Bullet is another media outlet that attempted to offer insights into the Vale-Inco strike. Petra Veltri, in an article titled Down in the Vale, explored the extent of the industrial action from different paradigms. Veltri (2009) noted that the strike would bear significant impacts on the employees. Specifically, the article highlighted the hard economic times that would make it even more difficult for the working class to keep existing. The piece however diverted the focus into more issues, some of which bore little linkages to the course of the strike. In its first paragraphs, the author notes that the striking employees were merely displeased by the fact that Brazil owners were attempting a full control of their company. Veltri (2009) then continued to justify the move by the company to downsize in a number of its operations. It noted that the world, in 2009, had just resurrected from an economic depression. Many organizations, at the time, did not have the financial power to maintain all their employees. More and bigger companies were attempting to downsize to stamp their authority in the global platform. The article then implied that the course taken by the entity was justified and anyone in their position would exploit similar strategies. Another notable aspect of the article was the analysis of the possible benefits that could arise from the strike. According to Veltri (2009), the strike offered an opportunity to the region of Sudbury to be ecologically friendly for the first time in a long time. Again, the article gave no reasons as to why working-class Canadians would organize a strike that is the longest in the history of the nation.
The Canadian Dimension and Reuters are some of the other outlets that showcased skewed portrayal of the 2009 Vale-Inco strike. While reporting the end of the strike, Scott Neigh of the Canadian Dimension noted that the strike was majorly about neo-liberalism. That is, it was an attempt by the rich to oppress the working class even more. The article then continues its analysis to note that it was primarily a political fight between the union and the company (Neigh, 2010). The companys skillful application of court injunctions is extensively employed. The outlet barely discussed the issue from the working class point of view. On his part, Reuters Cameron French focuses on the individualistic nature by which the feud was approached. French (2010) insisted that the strike would have taken a shorter period were the warring parties able to eliminate personal concerns in favor of long-term goals. In that sense, the article blames the employees for taking matters personal thereby jeopardizing every attempt made at resolving the conflict maturely. All the above papers and many more offered little to no information about the actual nature of the strike. The media portrayals of the Vale-Inco strike reflect on how the media portray more issues concerning the working class.

The Propaganda Model
The propaganda model is among the conceptual framework that has been developed to aid in showcasing how the media operates in matters concerning the dissemination of information. The propaganda model was developed by Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman (McQuail, 2010). Chomsky and Herman assert that the corporate mass media employs systematic biases in their attempt to sway the public to adopt particular sets of information. The theorist’s further state that in political systems, the mass media usually skew information to conform to specific benefits, analogy, or to sway people into unpopular policies and decisions. From this theory, political policies are manufactured, and propaganda is developed in undemocratic platforms to fuel the unpopular ideologies (Kumar, 2008). One could argue, based on the propaganda model, that the media consistently persuade people into accepting policies or issues that they do not like under the disguise of democratization.
Chomsky and Herman have employed five filters to aid in explaining how the mass media works in disfavor of the public interests. Primary among the filters is ownership. Most media outlets are currently owned by individuals whose interests do not lie in the creation of information that reflects reality (McQuail, 2010). Instead, media outlets are currently working with the primary objective of making profits. Herman and Chomsky substantiate this assertion by reflecting on the British media before the influx of wealthy business individuals into the industry. According to the theorists, the early 19th century was the best in the British press with most outlets being independent and able to deliver on the actual occurrences in the society (Deery & Press, 2018). That period featured media outlets that focused on the grievances of workers. Excessive stamp duties and poor working conditions dominated the British media at the time. The trends changed after the Second World War with numerous respectable wealthy individuals acquiring most of the media outlets. Worker-friendly outlets such as Sunday Citizen would then be submerged into bigger conglomerates thereby leading to the death of worker-friendly newscasting (Schulz, 2010). The emerging outlets such as the Daily Mirror would be friendly to the capitalists who cared little about the welfare of the workers. The earlier papers were not obliged to protect the interests of any individuals, which made their outputs highly respectable throughout the nation.
The prospect of ownership has spread throughout the world with the impacts evident in the structure of media houses. In Canada, large media houses keep acquiring smaller and independent outlets. The results of the prevailing trends of ownership are evident in how efficiently the media continues its focus on protecting the wealthy individuals at the expense of the poor ones (Deery & Press, 2018). Worthy of note is the fact that large conglomerates usually have financial interests to protect. It is impossible to believe that media outlets that intend to discriminate against particular demographic segments or those that want to pay their employees mildly would happily report violations of worker rights in some other organizations (Kendall, 2005). The media is fast growing to accommodate the interests of individuals and to make more profits at the expense of communicating the real feelings of the people or the actual desires of society.
Chomsky and Herman also exploit advertising as the second filter that has anchored the current architecture of the mass media. Like every business model, the mass media must cover their costs of production. Most newspapers or mass media outlets rely upon advertising to raise adequate funds for their operations (Fortner & Fackler, 2014). Without the money from advertising, media outlets would increase their subscription fees, or they would accommodate the costs through higher prices in every service that they offer. Currently, there is a race between media outlets to attract the highest amounts of advertisers. Media outlets, hence, are concerned much with relaying information that can draw the highest amount of people. Since advertisers want their products or services to reach the largest numbers, it can be immature to believe that outlets with the fewest readers will attract more money. Media outlets have tapped into this analogy by focusing their energy on reporting controversial pieces of information (Morrison, 2011). There could be a strike in a particular company. However, if the grievances of the employees taint the image of the owners or if praising the owners would deliver more advertisers, then one can be assured that it is what the media would exploit. It is money but not the truth that matters to the media currently.
Sourcing is another filter that the propaganda theorists believe to be playing an integral role in current information trends. It is remarkable that even large media houses cannot afford to place their reporters in every corner of the world (Fortner & Fackler, 2014). Instead, they put the reporters in strategic places where they believe they can get some adequate pieces of information on daily bases. Government institutions, ministries, or companies constitute the biggest amount of news currently. Hence, the mass media has confined its origins in specific areas. The reporters no longer research extensively. Reporters easily believe misleading information from the reputable sources emanating from the large corporations or institutions (Rondinone, 2010). Unless the subject news is significant that it cannot be avoided, the media will always source information from the usual suspects. That trend of sourcing leaves the working class isolated. The wealthy and company owners are positioned so well so that they can inform the world about everybody else with little questions embedded on their motives. Going by the inputs of the sourcing filter, more truth and credibility will be lost if the media cannot execute through research in every story that they publish or air.
Flak is another filter that is fast swaying the nature of information aired in various news outlets. Flak is the negative responses that media houses may attract after broadcasting or publishing information that does not favor particular individuals (Fortner & Fackler, 2014). Businesses and powerful individuals often form coalitions with the objectives to soil specific media houses that do not conform to some kinds of information. Flak occurs in the forms of legislative bills, punitive actions, threats, petitions, speeches, and counter-publications among others. All the attempts by flak propagandists are aimed at dis-reputing media outlets that speak the truth or merely eliminating them from operations. Those worker-friendly outlets that do not support the sponsors of flak are highly likely to become victims of this filter. Media outlets have responded to the influence of flak by conforming to the popular opinion. Amidst such moves, real victims are left unattended, the truth is skewed, and the voiceless are portrayed negatively (Geological Survey, 2012). Since the working class is not powered enough to counter flak, the media is usually obliged to root its information where it matters.
Anti-communism and fear is the last filter as noted by Chomsky and Herman in the propaganda model. The Western world, since the 19th century, has anchored its economic philosophy on capitalism. The society has been trained to accept capitalism as a superior and efficient economic model (Fortner & Fackler, 2014). The campaign has continued especially with the fall of communism in Eastern Europe. Another political trend that emerged amidst the portrayal of capitalist superiority was soiling of the communist ideas. Communism has been viewed as oppressive and results in no economic growth. More illustrations have been anchored on the abolition of communist ideals in Eastern Europe and parts of Asia during the cold war. The media joined in the fight for capitalism, and now nobody wants to go back. Unionization of workers is generally likened to communist ideas. Most corporations consider the unions as enemies of the progress that capitalist ideas have achieved through the centuries. Since the support comes from conglomerates and big companies, nobody wants to be indulged in the need to know more. Whenever there is a workers strike, big organizations take the opportunity to showcase their fear of communism. In the Vale-Inco case, for instance, unions were labeled as nationalists by the media. The moment the media takes its influence to label workers strikes negatively, it attempts to kill the genuine grievances of such workers in favor of evading their unfounded fears of communism (Rondinone, 2010). Unfortunately, since communist ideas do not sell while ideas against communism sell extensively, people will generally avoid the truth. It is, therefore, possible that the media is misleading the world and the world is incapacitated to realize the fact.

Martins Five Frames
The propaganda model has efficiently been complimented with Martins five frames. Martin has exploited five frames that depict the nature of information in the media currently (Lundy & Lundy, 2011). The consumer is king, the process of production is none of publics business, great business leaders drive the economy, the workplace is a meritocracy, and collective economic action is bad are some of the frames that define Martins model. Primarily, Martin asserts that the consumer is persuaded to believe that he/she is in control when that is not the case in a real sense (Rondinone, 2010). People rush to purchase products or services without considering much how the same products are manufactured. The media, who benefit from advertising fees, are used to fuel the ideas that the consumers are the kings, and all the inventions are aimed towards better value creation. Martin has noted that the public has been barred from questioning the process of production as that is none of their business.
The other frames as indicated by Martin are geared towards portraying the superiority of the employer. In the third frame, Martin notes that great business leaders drive the economy. In that frame, managers, executive officers, and company leaders are individuals with excellent abilities who can barely go wrong (Rosenblum & Travis, 2008). The structures and philosophies introduced by such leaders should be respected at the very least. The frame further confirms the inputs by mass media whereby decisions made by business leaders should not be questioned. Midst such accolades to the business leaders, the working class is alienated and left to fight for their rights all by themselves. Martins fourth frame asserts that the work is all about meritocracy. That is, people need to bear more skills or abilities than others to be successful in competitive workplaces. Through this frame, the capitalists and the media are merely justifying their will to lay off employees or revise their wages as they see appropriate. The fact that capitalism has created a competitive workplace makes it even difficult for people to fight for their rights for fear of eliminations (Saarinen, 2013). Ultimately, Martins frame exploits the continued campaigns to tame trade unions. Taming trade unions means that employees will never have a collective voice to communicate their grievances. Every effort by the unions to address the problems faced by the employees contradict the philosophy of the capitalists who react by triggering flak. The working environment and the media are structured to eliminate the efficiency within the working class.

Relevance
As evident in the two theories above, classism is an ill that is constantly geared towards portraying particular demographic segments as harmful. Labor and working class have been accorded different images that are supposed to befit the analogy that they are not important to society at all. One of the popular descriptions is attached to statistics (Kendall, 2011). Whenever there is workers strike, media has developed divisive strategies that primarily focus on statistics. The emphasis is put on the number of individuals who are affected as opposed to the real causes of the problems. Focusing on statistics adheres to the propaganda filter of ownership (Jones, 2016). The owners of mass media are exploring reverse tactics that portray them as saints with the striking masses delivered as evil.
The media has also perfected its portrayal of the working class as people who reap the consequences of their choices. Every time that information about needy individuals is broadcasted, they are barely accompanied by lack of institutional context (Pittenger, 2012). The media makes conclusions without really doing any research about what could have triggered particular issues. In the long-term, the agenda is set, and the society grows to believe that the hardship that the working class is facing is primarily born from their unwillingness to learn or their appetite to destroy infrastructure. When these lies are repeated, nobody enquires about the truth (Quirke, 2012). If a context is not given as to why some people live in poverty or constant struggles, the public automatically grows into believing that they chose to live that life. The same applies to workers strikes where people generally develop the belief that it is because of choices that they work in unstable workplaces.
Ultimately, the media has portrayed the working class as people whose fortunes would be revitalized by lack. Currently, there are numerous films showcased in the media showcasing the analogy of just a matter of time before people become lucky (Taylor & Harris, 2008). Films such as Extreme Couponing and Downsized continuously showcase a society where people are level grounded, and every person has the opportunity to revitalize his/her life with hard work. Rarely do the films showcase the reality about skewed resource allocation or inadequate services to some cultures or demographic factions (Weir, 2007). The theoretical frameworks above show that media is continually creating an illusion that the working class is lazy and should be accorded little motivations to exceed their expectations.
To conclude, the media is not portraying labor and the working class appropriately. Individuals who fall in the working-class category are accorded the worst possible portrayals in the media. The Vale-Inco strike of 2009 is an indication of how the media can skew information to befit specific people or agenda. Going by the current paradigms of media coverage, there are social classes that are viewed as hardworking while others are lazy, some are lucky as others are unlucky, and some people are capitalists while others are communists. The media is fast disintegrating society for their interests. Martins five frames and the propaganda model both indicate that it is not the intentions of the media to skew information to befit some people. Instead, some stakeholders are powerful enough to control information. Failures to adhere to the needs of such stakeholders translate to the collapse of a media house. Probably, the working class should find other avenues of showcasing their grievances away from the media that is inclined towards the oppressors.

References
Bronsky, C. (2009). Vale Inco strike: Labour bureaucrats promote nationalism. World Socialist Website. Retrieved from https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2009/09/vale-s10.html
Deery, J., & Press, A. L. (2018). Media and class: TV, film, and digital culture. New York, NY: Routledge.
Fortner, R. S., & Fackler, M. (2014). The handbook of media and mass communication theory. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley.
French, C. (2010). Nine months in, Vale Inco strike a stalemate. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/vale-inco-strike/spot-feature-nine-months-in-vale-inco-strike-a-stalemate-idUSN2711676420100427
Geological Survey. (2012). Area Reports: International Review: 2010, International, Latin America, and Canada. Geological Survey.
Jones, O. (2016). Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class. Verso Books.
Kendall, D. (2005). Framing class: Media representations of wealth and poverty in America. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Kendall, D. E. (2011). Framing class: Media representations of wealth and poverty in America. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Kumar, D. (2008). Outside the box: Corporate media, globalization, and the UPS strike. Urbana, Ill: University of Illinois Press.
Lundy, C., & Lundy, C. (2011). Social work, social justice & human rights: A structural approach to practice. North York, Ont: University of Toronto Press.
McQuail, D. (2010). Mcquail’s mass communication theory. London: SAGE Publications Ltd
Morrison, J. (2011). Global Business Environment: Meeting the Challenges. Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.
Neigh, S. (2010). The Vale-Inco strike comes to a close. Canadian Dimension. Retrieved from https://canadiandimension.com/articles/view/web-exclusive-the-vale-inco-strike-comes-to-a-close
Pittenger, M. (2012). Class unknown: Undercover investigations of American work and poverty from the progressive era to the present. New York: New York University Press.
Quirke, C. (2012). Eyes on labor: News photography and America’s working class. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rondinone, T. (2010). The great industrial war: Framing class conflict in the media, 1865-1950. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press.
Rosenblum, K. E., & Travis, T.-M. (2008). The meaning of difference: American constructions of race, sex and gender, social class, sexual orientation, and disability. Boston; New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Saarinen, O. W. (2013). From meteorite impact to constellation city: A historical geography of Greater Sudbury. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Schulz, P. (2010). Communication theory. London: SAGE.
Taylor, P. A., & Harris, J. L. (2008). Critical theories of mass media: Then and now. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England: McGraw Hill/Open University Press.
Veltri, P. (2009). Down in the Vale: Sudbury Steelworkers Strike at Vale Inco. The Bullet. Retrieved from https://socialistproject.ca/2009/09/b253/
Weir, R. E. (2007). Class in America: An encyclopedia. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

资本预算案例代写 Capital Budgeting Case Study

Capital Budgeting Case Study

资本预算案例代写
Instructions: The assignment is based on the case below. The instructions relating to the assignment are at the end of the case.
Ramiro and Sema are about to make a decision that is very important for the future of their business. They evaluated some financial scenarios, the two software programmers now think that it’s time to make a final decision on their forecasted cash flows and decide on their next move. They have two alternative projects and they need to decide one of the projects to undertake.
Both friends have advanced level training/education in programing and both worked for leading companies in the sector for many years. With their years of savings, now they decide to pursue their dreams and start their own company. They have been working on a program that would speed up the processing time in computer programs. The speed will increase by about 25%. At the moment, the software is complete. They think that the software could be improved in different industries, but any delay in starting their own company and entering the market may be very costly. Any other programmer or big competitor may also develop the same software, which will take away from the two friends an advantage of being the first mover to the market. They both are “do it now” people and against any further delay to enter the market.
Ramiro and Sema are going to spend $1,000,000 on plant, equipment and suppliers. Being a new company and not having a network of customers will make their business risky during the first year, so they decide to keep the prices very low in the first year. They will offer very cheap prices in the first year and their cash flows will be low. Once, they have a place in the market and have market recognition, the price can be increased. They expect that they will only be able to make sales for 5 years, thinking that in 5 years the technology will change too much and their software will lose its attractiveness. But they expect that they can sell the company (sell the patent of the software) to another company, which then can incorporate their software into their own products. Accordingly, the two friends estimate the cash flows for the next 5 years on this project (call it Project A) as follows:

Year
Project A
Expected Cash flows ($)

0
(1,000,000)

1
50,000

2
200,000

3
600,000

4
1,000,000

5
1,500,000

An alternative to pursuing this project would be to immediately sell the patent for their innovative software design to one of the established software makers. They estimated that they would receive around $200,000 for this. It would probably not be reasonable to expect much more as neither their product nor their innovative approach had a track record.

They could then invest in some plant and equipment that would test silicon wafers for zircon content before the wafers were used to make chips. Too much zircon would affect the long-term performance of the chips. The task of checking the level of zircon was currently being performed by chip makers themselves. However, many of them, especially the smaller ones, did not have the capacity to permit 100% checking. Most tested only a sample of the wafers they received.
Ramiro and Sema were confident that they could persuade at least some of the chip makers to outsource this function to them. By exclusively specializing in this task, their little company would be able to slash costs by more than half, and thus allow the chip manufacturers to go in for 100% quality check for roughly the same cost as what they were incurring for a partial quality check today. The life of this project too (call it project B) is expected to be only about five years.
The initial investment for this project is estimated at $ 1,100,000. After taking into account the sale of their patent, the net investment would be $900,000. As for the future, Ramiro and Sema were pretty sure that there would be sizable profits in the first couple of years. But thereafter, the zircon content problem would slowly start to disappear with advancing technology in the wafer industry. Keeping all this in mind, they estimate the cash flows for this project as follows:

Year
Project B
Expected Cash flows ($)

0
($900,000)

1
650,000

2
650,000

3
550,000

4
300,000

5
100,000

Ramiro and Sema now need to make their decision. For purposes of analysis, they plan to use a required rate of return of 20% for both projects. Ideally, they would prefer that the project they choose have a payback period of less than 3.5 years and a discounted payback period of less than 4 years.
Below are the results of the analysis they have carried out so far: (you need to recalculate these results)

Metrics
Project A
Project B

Payback period (in years)
3.15
1.38

Discounted payback period (in years)
3.98
1.79

Net Present Value (NPV)
$612,847
$596,206

Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
35.93%
55.07%

Profitability Index
1.61
1.66

Please be sure to validate the results above. One of the concerns that Ramiro and Sema have is regarding the reliability of their cash flow estimates. All the analysis in the table above is based on “expected” cash flows. However, they are both aware that actual future cash flows may be higher or lower.
Assignment:
Suppose that Ramiro and Sema have hired you as a consultant to help them make the decision. Please draft an official max 4-page and min 2-page memo to them with your analysis and recommendations.
Your submission should cover the following questions:
Briefly, summarize the key facts of the case and identify the problem being faced by ourtwo budding entrepreneurs. In other words, what is the decision that they need tomake?
What are some approaches that can be used to solve this problem? What are some various criteria or metrics that can be used to help make thisdecision?
An excellent paper will propose solutions that are sensitive to all the identified issues.
a) Rank the projects based on each of the following metrics: Payback period, Discounted payback period, NPV, IRR, ProfitabilityIndex.
b) Sema believes that the best approach to make the decision is the NPV approach. However, Ramiro is not so sure that ignoring the other metrics is a good idea. Which of the approaches or metrics would you propose? In other words, would you prefer one or more of these approaches over the others? Explain why.
An excellent paper includes an evaluation of solutions containing thorough and insightful explanations, feasibility of solutions, and impacts of solutions.
a) Which of these projects would you recommend? Explainwhy.
b) Briefly state the limitations of the approach you used in making this decision, and outline what further analysis you wouldrecommend.
An excellent paper provides concise yet thorough action-oriented recommendations using appropriate subject-matter justifications related to the problem while addressing limitations of the solution and outlining recommended futureanalysis.

Lastly, you will prepare a presentation (max 3-4 minutes, max 3 slides) and give your analysis and results in class.

The initial cost of each project given above outline is $1M for project A and $1.1M for project B. This is just for your references. Your analysis will be done using the initial costs given below. For each student, a different initial cost is given. Make your analysis based on the initial cost given table below.
The initial cost table for each student:

Student ID
The initial cost of project A
The initial cost of project B

988214
$ 1,872,974
$ 1,239,868

987722
$ 1,135,903
$ 1,042,389

987750
$ 1,266,346
$ 1,270,193

987766
$ 1,480,423
$ 1,328,179

987767
$ 1,164,531
$ 1,580,251

987768
$ 1,476,473
$ 2,100,398

987779
$ 1,260,191
$ 1,324,487

987783
$ 1,737,019
$ 1,316,000

987786
$ 1,637,190
$ 1,520,049

987814
$ 1,697,200
$ 1,111,011

987829
$ 1,923,905
$ 1,146,706

987896
$ 1,609,459
$ 1,907,445

987914
$ 1,727,662
$ 2,095,638

987950
$ 1,463,852
$ 1,089,763

987964
$ 1,863,657
$ 2,041,153

987972
$ 1,414,857
$ 1,890,629

987976
$ 1,371,045
$ 2,170,151

988001
$ 1,534,267
$ 1,616,264

988002
$ 1,156,957
$ 1,788,154

988074
$ 1,015,485
$ 1,075,669

988137
$ 1,248,861
$ 1,057,286

988150
$ 1,430,528
$ 1,355,894

988159
$ 1,446,699
$ 1,186,850

988165
$ 1,226,710
$ 1,876,041

988177
$ 818,628
$ 1,469,253

987777
$ 1,141,289
$ 1,894,635

987798
$ 1,377,844
$ 1,823,207

987806
$ 1,650,631
$ 1,893,736

987833
$ 817,704
$ 1,574,982

987975
$ 912,127
$ 1,544,855

987998
$ 1,063,463
$ 1,859,046

988000
$ 1,237,074
$ 1,552,313

952722
$ 1,646,439
$ 1,701,327

988046
$ 806,030
$ 1,056,390

988051
$ 1,153,451
$ 1,808,626

988125
$ 1,400,882
$ 1,234,227

988131
$ 702,258
$ 1,969,558

988136
$ 1,859,023
$ 1,600,253

988161
$ 1,715,326
$ 2,113,064

952880
$ 1,252,393
$ 1,653,554

$ 904,408

$ 1,622,366

$ 938,334

$ 1,604,057

$ 1,811,118

$ 1,614,452

$ 1,726,247

$ 2,174,888

$ 1,580,697

$ 1,130,119

$ 1,323,266

$ 1,509,311

$ 1,765,507

$ 1,376,281

$ 1,938,271

$ 1,842,230

If your student ID is not in the list, choose a set of initial cost from the bottom of the table (grey cells)

MIPS Assembly代写 cs333

CSI 333 – Programming at the Hardware-Software Interface
SQUPT, Spring 2019

Project 5

The total grade for the assignment is 100 points.
You must follow the programming and documentation guidelines (see file Programming Assignments Requirements and Recommendations.docx).
This is a team project (except for those students who have opted to work on their own). Group of two students may work on this project together.
Due date: 11:59pm Sunday, May 19, 2019
Description
You are required to write a MAL program that prompts a user for a line of characters (only decimal digits or whitespace characters) and reads the line typed by the user. If the line contains just whitespace characters your program should simply output the message “Line contains only whitespace characters.” and stop. Otherwise, your program should compute and output the following:
The total number of decimal integers (not digits) in the input line.
The maximum number of 1’s in the binary representations of the integers in the input line.
All given integers with the maximum number of 1’s in the binary representations. The integers should be printed in order as they appear in the input line.
Example:
Suppose the user types:
12 346 31 44 73
Then,
Integers
Binary representation
Number of 1’s

12
1100
2

346
101011010
5

31
11111
5

44
101100
3

73
1001001
3

For this example, the required answers are as follows:
The number of the given integers is 5.
The maximum number of 1’s in the binary representations of the given integers is 5.
The given integers that have four 1’s in the binary representations are 346 and 31.
Program outline:
The outline for your program must be the following.
Prompt the user for a line of characters.
Read the line of characters typed by the user.

If the line has only whitespace characters print the message:
“Line contains only white space characters.” and stop.
Otherwise compute the quantities mentioned above and print the answers.
Stop.
Assumptions:
The characters typed by the user are decimal digits or whitespace character. Hence, there is no minus sign and there are no negative numbers in the input line.
A whitespace character refers to a space, a tab or the newline character.
The user does not exceed 9 decimal digits sequentially, so four bytes are enough for any integer in the input.
Any line typed by a user has at most 80 characters including the newline character.
End of any line is determined by the null character.
Each time your program is executed, it should handle just one line of characters.
Programming Suggestions:
MAL program must be in a file named p5.asm.
It must have at least two functions in addition to the main program.
Study materials of Class 12-Data structures in MAL before working.
Check whether the input line consists of just whitespace characters, no other error checks are needed.
There is no need to convert the integer to binary; when the integer is in the register, it is already in binary form. Use bitwise operations to count the number of 1’s.
Example of program execution and sample data to test your program
Important Note: Some sample inputs that can be used to test your programs are given below. However, you should remember that when we compile and run your source files, we will use other data. Just because your programs work for the sample inputs given below, you shouldn’t assume that they will work for all inputs. Therefore, you should test your programs thoroughly with other input values.
Example 1 of program execution:
Enter the line? 12 346 31 44 73
No. of integers: 5
Maximum number of 1’s in the binary representation: 5
Integers of maximum number of 1’s in the binary representation:
346
31

Example 2 of program execution:
Enter the line? 27 53 89 3 10 111 233
No. of integers: 7
Maximum integer: 233
Maximum number of 1’s in the binary representation: 6
Integers of maximum number of 1’s in the binary representation:
111

Example 3 of program execution:
Enter the line? 73 15 786 256 90 266
No. of integers: 6
Maximum integer: 786
Maximum number of 1’s in the binary representation: 4
Integers of maximum number of 1’s in the binary representation:
15
786
90
Submission
You must perform submissions as directed by your co-instructor.
Ignoring any of the following rules will result in penalty or even ZERO grade for the project!
For the team project each team must make only one submission. That is, in each team, ONLY ONE member must do this. Team submissions must include additional documentation in the source file as explained below.
Submission should include:
A file named as directed by your co-instructor with source code for the project. More details will be given in your lab classes.
Screenshot with program output.
At the top of your source code file the following information must appear in the form of comments:
Course code and title (i.e. “CSI 333. Programming at the Hardware-Software Interface”),
Semester (e.g., Spring 2019),
The name of your lab classes supervisor,
Your class (e.g., ZR170102),
Your student ID,
Your pinyin name.
Students working in a team must have the following information at the beginning of your source file in the form of comments:
Course code and title (i.e. “CSI 333-Programming at the Hardware-Software Interface”),
Semester (e.g., Spring 2019),
The name of your lab classes supervisor,
Your class (e.g., ZR170102),
The student IDs of the two team members,
The pinyin names of the two team members,
A clear explanation of how the work for the project was divided among the two team members. Indicate clearly who developed each function and how the testing work was divided between the team members.
Make sure that your program produces correct results on MARS simulator. Programs that cause errors will NOT receive any credit.
Project Grading
Programs will be graded by co- instructors.
For students working individually:
Correctness: 85 points
Structure and documentation: 15 points
For students working in a team:
Correctness: 65 points
Structure and documentation: 15 points
Team work: 20 points
Each team member must participate in developing, documenting and testing the program. Each team should include additional documentation at the beginning of the source file indicating how the work for the project was divided between the two team members. (Indicate clearly who developed each function and how the testing work was divided between the team members.) After the submission deadline, each team must meet with their instructor who supervises the lab classes. During the meeting, the instructor will ask questions about the team’s program and determine the points for team work. (The two team members may receive different scores for team work.)
Additional comments
Comment 1:
You may study and reuse some ideas of the following code. Important: it is NOT a solution for your project, but it has some useful hints.

#this code identifies the number of whitespace, or numbers of integers,
#by assuming that every integers are separated by one space, tab, or newline

.data
prompt: .asciiz “Enter Numbers: \n”
str: .space 80

.text
main:
la $a0,prompt #print out the prompt
li $v0,4
syscall

la $a0,str #read the input str with 80 space
li $a1,80
li $v0,8
syscall

la $a0,str #print out the str
li $v0,4
syscall

move $s1,$0
la $a0,str
move $t0,$a0 #move str to $t0

loop:
addi $t0,$t0,1
lb $t1,0($t0) #load first char of str into $t1 to be analyzed

beqz $t1,exit
beq $t1,32,count #if ‘ ‘ branch
beq $t1,11,count #if ‘\t’ branch
beq $t1,10,count #if ‘\n’ branch
j loop

count:
addi $s1,$s1,1
j loop

exit:
move $a0,$s1
li $v0,1
syscall

li $v0,10 #exit
syscall

Comment 2:
Project 5 has many details that you need to take care of. Below there is a pseudo code (or an algorithm) to guide you in your coding. You may use your own idea to build the project, this is only a suggestion.

main segment

data
input: array of bytes of size 80
//e.g. input 15, 32, 0, 12, 18 as array of characters
integers: array of words of size 40
//will save the actual values of integers

input <- read
check empty line
//subroutine 1, to check if input is all white-spaces, if so, the program terminates
construct integers
//subroutine 2, to convert ASCII code representation of digits to actual integers, 49 is the ASCII code of ‘1’, 53 is for ‘5’, so 15 will be saved as word instead of 49 and 53 as two bytes.
print number of integers
//subroutine 3, to count and print number of integers, here is 5
print the maximum number of ‘1’ bits
//subroutine 4
print integers with max. number of ‘1’ bits
//subroutine 5
end and stop

subroutine 1: check empty line
load the byte from input as C
if C is the end of the line then print “Empty line”, end and stop
if C is not a digit, goto step 1
return to main

subroutine 2: construct integers
// read handout 15.3
load the first/next byte from input as C
if C is the end of the line, goto step 19
if C is not a digit goto step 1
E = 0
//to count number of digits of an integer number
C = C – 48
//48 is the ASCII code for ‘0’, the subtraction is to get the actual value
E = E + 1
push C
load the next byte from input as C
if C is a digit then goto step 5
sum = 0, P = 1, R = 10
//P is to control digit’s placement, ones, tens, …
if E == 0, goto step 17
E = E – 1
pop D
//get the digit from stack
sum = sum + D * P
P = P * R
goto step 11
save sum in integers
goto step 1
//get ready for the digits of the next integer
save -1 in integers
//indicating the end of numbers, will be useful in the coming subroutines
return to main

The remaining subroutines are your responsibility.

Good luck!

商科经济统计论文代写 Writing Assignment代写

BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC STATISTICS (BD510), BD SOPHIA UNIVERSITY

Writing Assignment

Spring 2019

PROJECT OVERVIEW

Eachstudentwillberequiredtocompleteawritingassignmentindependently.Inthisproject, youconductanempiricalanalysisusingtheregressionanalysisyoulearninthiscourse.You chooseatopicofresearch,developyourownresearchquestions,andanswertoyourresearch questionsusingdata.Althoughthetopiccanbeanything(notnecessarilybusinessandeco- nomics),youneedtofind,summarize,andanalyzedataonyourown.
Each student should submit one copy of a project proposal, a progress report, and a final paper.Eachreportmustbetyped.Hand-writingwillnotbeaccepted.Latesubmissionwill notbeacceptedeither.
You are also required to make a 20-minute presentation about your project in class. The presentation is scheduled on July 18 and/or July 22.
Thegradingcriteriaare(i)areresearchquestionspresentedclearly?,(ii)toanswerthere- searchquestions,isdataanalysisconductedappropriatelywithadequatedata?,(iii)arere- sultspresentedclearly?,and(iv)arediscussionsand/orconclusionsmadelogicallybasedon theempiricalfindingsofyourdataanalysis?ItisgoodtorefertoCh.19ofthetextbookby Wooldridge.Thepresentationwillalsobeevaluatedbyotherstudents.

PROJECT SCHEDULE

PROPOSAL
The Deadline for the proposal is May 27, 2019.

The proposal should include:

thetopicofyourproject(Describewhyitisinterestingand/orimportant.)

yourresearchquestions(Usingaformalorinformalmodel,formulatequestionsofin- terest.)
potential data source (Explain where you plan to collect data. You may conduct your ownsurveyormayusesecondarydatafromthewebsitesofgovernments,companies, and soon.)

PROGRESS
The Deadline for the progress report is June 24, 2019.

The progress report should include:

detaileddatasource(explainhowyouobtainthedataandalsojustifythatyouuseap- propriatedatatoansweryourresearchquestions)
descriptive statistics of the data (create charts/tables and summarize numerical mea- sures)

FINAL PAPER
The Deadline for the final paper is July 31, 2019.

The final paper should include:

introduction,whereyouclarifythetopicofyourresearch,formulateyourresearch questions,motivateyouranalysis(explainwhyitisimportant/interesting),describe thebackgroundofyourresearchtopic(discusswhathasbeenknownandwhathas beenunknownintheliterature)
data description, where you explain about the data and describe the data using ta- bles/chartsandnumericalmeasures.

statistical analysis, where you conduct regression analysis (you should report the re- sultsneatlyintables).
discussion, where you summarize the empirical findings and discuss what you learn fromtheempiricalanalysis.
conclusion,whereyoudrawaconclusiononyourresearchtopic.


BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC STATISTICS (BD510), BD SOPHIA UNIVERSITY

Writing Assignment – Proposal

Spring 2019

The deadline for the proposal is May 27, 2019.

The proposal should include:

The topic of theproject
In a few paragraphs, describe what you explore in the project, explain background of the topic, and state the reasons (motivations) for writing about thetopic.
Inchoosingthetopic,keepinmindthatyoushouldconductregressionanalysis in thisproject.
Beclearabouttheresearchquestionsthatarebasedonaformalorinformalmodel.

Potential datasource
Inafewparagraphs,describewhatdatayouusetoexplorethetopicyouchoose and describe how to collect thedata.
Specify key information/variables you need for your analysis. What are the de- pendentvariable(s)andexplanatoryvariablesofinterest?
Althoughyoudonotnecessarilyhavethedata,youneedtolocateyourpotential datasource.

The proposal must be longer than a page but must not exceed three pages.

Networking代写 网络代写

Introduction
This case study has been divided into four components.
You are to design a network, research and source appropriate devices justifying choices (feasibility, efficiency, etc.), subnet the network, assign IP addresses to the appropriate devices, and write a report introduction for the project.

Note: This is not a group project. Each student must individually complete all parts of their submission.
Students must start with a new document and they must not have another person’s file in their possession at any time. Students may discuss the task with each other, but each student must write their assignment independently and not show their work to other students.
Deliverables
A single Word document (.docx) – containing all parts
Assignment breakdown
Scenario
Ausdata Services Inc., an Australian data analytics company, has asked you to assess and redesign their network. They are opening a new branch in Mackay, which will require new equipment. They have existing contracts and hardware to maintain fibre-optic leased line WAN links between sites.
PART 1 – Introduction
PART 2 – Network diagram
PART 3 – Subnet the network and assign IP addresses to the appropriate devices
PART 4 – Research and source appropriate devices justifying choices (feasibility, efficiency, etc.) with a Weighted Scoring Model (WSM)

PART 1 – Introduction
The first part of your report should be introduction to the project. Although this is the first part you should include in your report, it should be the last part that you write. In your introduction you are to provide an outline for each of parts 2, 3, and 4.
What to include:
Describe the overall task of assessing and redesigning the network.
Explain why it is important to produce a well-designed network diagram.
Explain why it is necessary to create and document the separate subnets for the network.
Explain why new equipment is needed for the new branches, the basic role of the switches and routers, and the process you used to select the equipment.
The introduction should be well-articulated: clear, concise, and use correct spelling and grammar. The intended audience for the introduction can be assumed to have basic technical knowledge but are not networking experts. The introduction should be no longer than a page.
PART 2 – Network specifications and diagram
Network Specifications
You have been given a rough sketch of the network topology below. You are to draw the network using Visio, subnet the network (see part 3), and assign port numbers and IP addresses to ports.
Network Structure
Hardware
Only include one switch in you diagram for each LAN or WLAN (even if more are required)
Servers should be on their own LAN
The Internet router port address is 31.255.14.98/30
The Gosford router is connected to the Internet and provides access to the public backbone containing a web server and a compute server.

PART 3 – Subnet the network using VLSM, and assign IP addresses to the appropriate devices.
Each location has the following number of hosts
Gosford, Canberra, Cairns, and Mackay each include a wireless LAN for clients to use.
Location
Workstations
WLAN addresses

Gosford
600
120

Canberra
300
30

Cairns
150
14

Mackay
80
14

Darwin
60

Adelaide
40

Subnetting
Use VLSM to subnet the network topology using a public class B network. You are to use the table format below to provide the subnet details.
Table 1. Subnets (including WAN subnets)
Spreadsheet Columns: Subnet name, subnet address, subnet mask (in slash format), first useable address, last useable address, broadcast address, static address range and DHCP address range (all addresses to be in dotted decimal notation)
Table 2. Router Interfaces
Spreadsheet Columns: Location, interface, IP address, subnet mask (in slash format)
Table 3. Servers
Spreadsheet Columns: Location, server name, IP address, subnet mask (in slash format)
Additional requirements:
Choose one public B class network address for the entire network and subnet this block of addresses to optimise spare addresses for future expansion.
Place the WAN subnets in the blocks directly following the LAN address space.
Add 100% to each subnet to allow for growth in the number of hosts specified for each LAN (i.e. workstations × 2). Do not allow for any growth in the number of servers or size of WLANs
DHCP will to be used for IP address allocation for hosts in each subnet and these ranges are to be allocated for each LAN.
Static IP addresses are to be allocated where appropriate.
The ISP has given us an IP address of 31.255.14.98/30 for our Internet connection at Gosford.

PART 4 – Research and source appropriate devices justifying choices (feasibility, efficiency, etc.)
You are to research and submit a project procurement plan for the Mackay network. The devices you must include are routers, switches, and wireless access points. Make sure the devices you select can handle the number of workstations required and provide a good quality of service to wired and wireless users.
Your project plan and final recommendations should be based on a Weighted Decision Matrix (like the WDM you did in the Procurement Practical). You are to compare five (5) devices from each category and to base the decision on reasonable and well-justified attributes.
The budget for procurement is $7,500. You may exceed this if you can justify it well.
Your project plan is to contain the following components:
Weighted Decision Matrix – hardware resource requirements analysis
Include a written justification for priorities and attributes given in the matrix
Create your WDMs in Excel and copy and paste them into your Word doc
Budget
Create a well-presented table of the prices of all devices and the total cost
Include hardware only, not labour

Marking Scheme
Ensure that you follow the processes and guidelines taught in class to produce high quality work. This assessment rubric provides you with the characteristics of exemplary, good, satisfactory, and unacceptable work in relation to task criteria
Criteria
Exemplary (90-100)%
Good (70-80)%
Satisfactory (50-60)%
Limited (20-40)%
Very Limited (0-10)%

Part 1 Introduction
Content

/15

Accurate outline of report contents that demonstrates excellent understanding of networking content.

Suitable for a semi-technical audience.

Accurate outline of report contents that demonstrates good understanding of networking content.

Generally suitable for a semi-technical audience.
Generally accurate outline of report contents that demonstrates understanding of networking content.

Provides basic outline of report contents.
Incomprehensible, negligible attempt, or not done.

Quality of Writing
/5
Well-structured into paragraphs.
Correct grammar.
Correct spelling.

Most of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but some minor issues.
Over half of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but some minor issues.
Under half of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) or significant issues in some areas.
Many significant errors with structure, grammar, or spelling, or not done.

Part 2 Topology Design
Diagram appearance

/10
Created in MS Visio (or draw.io for external students) using Cisco icon set, and the diagram is:
Neat and professional
All lines at set angles (multiples of 30, 45, 90 degrees)
Lines do not end short
Lines do not appear over the top of devices
Lines align if on same level
Most of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but some minor issues.
Over half of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but some minor issues.
Under half of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) or significant issues in some areas.
Many problems (e.g. not done in Visio, inconsistent formatting, diagram does not align to subnetting scheme, etc).

Diagram Labels and Devices

/10
Topology is accurate and the diagram
Includes device names
Interface names
Interface IP addresses
Masks in slash format
Text neatly placed and sized
Most of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but some minor issues.
Over half of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but some minor issues.
Under half of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) or significant issues in some areas.
Many problems (e.g. topology is inaccurate; devices are not named, etc).

Part 3 Subnetting
Scheme
/10
LANs and WLANs are the correct size.
All required LANs and WLANs are documented.
WANs are the correct size.
All required WANs are documented.
Most of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but one or two minor issues, such as a missing LAN, or incorrect address block choice.
Most of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but several minor issues (e.g multiple missing LANs or WANs) or a significant issue such as incorrect size.
Some LANs and WANs are documented.

Sizes are correct, or at least not outlandishly incorrect.
Few LANs and WANs are correctly identified.

Nonsensical subnet size chosen.

Subnet Tables
/10
Based on the chosen subnetting scheme, the following specifications are available and correct for LANs and WLANs table, and WANs table:
Subnet address
Subnet mask
Broadcast address
First usable address
Static address range (LANs and WLANs only)
DHCP address range (LANs and WLANs only)

Most of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but some minor lapses.
Most of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but several minor issues, or a significant issue such as missing a column.
Tables are presented and contain most of the correct columns, and some correct entries.
Tables contain major issues such as impossible subnet bounds, or negligible attempt, or not done.

Router Table
/10
Based on the chosen subnetting scheme, the following specifications are available and correct in the router interface table:
Location
Interface
IP address
Subnet mask

Most of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but a few minor issues or missing interfaces.
Over half of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but some minor issues.
Table is presented, but contains several significant errors such as mismatched IP addresses or missing columns.
Table is generally incomplete or incorrect.

Server Table
/5
Based on the chosen subnetting scheme, the following specifications are available and correct in the server table:
Location
Name
IP address
Subnet mask

Most of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but a few minor issues.
Over half of the criteria are satisfactory (See criteria under “exemplary”) but some minor issues.
Table is presented, but contains several significant errors such as mismatched IP addresses or missing columns.
Table is generally incomplete or incorrect.

Part 4 – Procurement
Weighted Decision Matrices
/30
All required WDMs available.
WDMs have been formatted as per the practical example
Clear, concise, and reasonable justifications for priorities and attributes given in the matrix.
Appropriate hardware choices.
As per “exemplary”, but some minor lapses.
As per “exemplary”, but several minor lapses, or some significant issues, such missing WDMs, formatting issues, some poor justifications, or some inappropriate hardware choices.
Some WDMs are available, but justifications are generally poor, and hardware choices generally inappropriate.
Major issues with WDMs, justifications, and hardware choices.

Budget

/10
Professional, detailed, accurate, and visually appealing.
As per “exemplary”, but some minor lapses.
Generally accurate and visually appealing.
Several inaccuracies.
Generally inaccurate.

Overall Document
Document and Submission

/5

Submission is a single Word document divided into sections as outlined.

Single Word document, but not correctly divided into sections.

Incorrect submission.

Formatting

/15
Consistent and readable use of fonts.

All tables are consistently neat and easy to read.
Consistent and readable use of fonts.

Tables are generally neat and readable.
Mostly consistent and readable use of fonts.

Tables are somewhat neat and readable.
Inconsistent use of fonts, or inappropriate choice.

Some tables are messy or difficult to read.
Poor use of fonts.

Several tables are missing or very poorly formatted.

文学电影论文代写 What are the key ways that film and game into related in contemporary movie image culture?

What are the key ways that film and game into related in contemporary movie image culture?

Student ID:xxxx
MA FILM
Supervisor:xxxx
Due:7 November 2019

Table of Contents
1.Introduction 3
2.Methodology 4
3.Literature Review 6
4. Substantive chapters 7
4.1 Non-linear narrative and open ending 7
4.2 The application of FPV of the game in the film 9
4.3 IP adaptation of games and films 10
4.4 The use of game effects in films 12
4.5Interactive film modeled on the game settings 14
5. Conclusion 16
6.Bibliographies 17
7.Filmographies 19
8.Appendices 19


1.Introduction

As one of the most important mass media, film has gone through more than 100 years since it appeared in the late 19th century. Film is closely related to people’s life. People’s thoughts, behaviors and consciousness are influenced by it imperceptibly, and at the same time, they accept the unprecedented aesthetic and cultural experience brought by it. The Games in this paper refer to video games, and the following are simplified as games. Game was formally born in the 1950s, and gradually accepted by people. Game has become the basis of an important entertainment industry in Japan, the United States and Europe in the late 1970s.Game is a new product after decades of film development. However, in a very short time, it quickly mixes with film magically and creates unexpected effects. In fact, the economic value of both is amazing. According to MPAA’s reliable data sources, the global box office in 2016 was very prosperous, breaking last year’s record, increasing by 1%, with a total amount of US $38.6 billion (Xinhua,2017). By 2017, the total amount of global film box office reached 40.6 billion US dollars, an increase of 5% over the previous year. In 2018, global box office revenue amounted to 41.1 billion U.S. dollars, marking an increase from the previous year (Amy Watson,2019). At present, the world’s game giants are Sony Computer Entertainment and Nintendo in Japan, Microsoft in the United States and Tencent in China. In 2018, the market was expected to be worth approximately 115 billion U.S. dollars and the source projects the industry revenues to surpass 138 billion by 2021 (Christina Gough,2018). Global video games revenue will reach $210bn by 2023, with mobile gaming accounting for the majority of revenue (Consumer & Entertainment Services,2018). The huge economic value makes the integration of games and films develop rapidly. Academic interest coincides with the rise of digitalization and the accompanying business models and data (Jehoshua Eliashberg, etc. 2016). Since the trend of game and film integration has been irreversible, the following methodology, literature review and substantive chapters will focus on such a theme.
Ingeniously, the methodology and the theme of this paper correspond to each other. Generally speaking, methodology is the research guidance of a paper. After it has been carefully constructed, the next parts will proceed step by step, that is to say, the process is linear. Although a large number of literature materials and some well-prepared interviews have been carried out in advance, they have been proved to be not able to support the smooth development of the paper in the process of writing, but only an inspiration. To some extent, the methodology of this paper is nonlinear. At the beginning, the preparation of literature and interview are two obvious methods. However, in the process of writing, some new and better ideas appeared, and the old ideas were rejected. New ideas are like new props that are accidentally harvested in the game. Once triggered, a new plot will be born. The starting point of this paper comes from experience. Through experience, a large number of original materials are accumulated. In the next step, these materials will be observed, that is, recollection, thinking, reflection, integration, from which valuable gains and experiences will be abstracted. Finally, several key points related to the theme are extracted and form the system of this paper.
The collection and selection of literature review will be divided into three parts. To clarify the concept of film and game is the work of the first preparation stage of the literature. The game and the film develop respectively, and then at a specific node, their lines cross. That is to say, the preparation of literatures about the origin and development history of the two is not separate, but trying to find their similarities. Through the literature, people can know that the blending of games and films is certain. The next step in literature preparation will focus on how they interact with each other. In the second stage, the purpose of literature preparation is to get enlightenment and verification in the previous scholars’ research, and then extract unique views through independent thinking. It is worth noting that the time dimension of literature is very critical, almost all of which will be selected within 5 years. In addition, some original reading books will be partially used. After all, the information in the digital age is updated very quickly, and some views have been outdated or even proved unreasonable.
Next is the main part of this paper, which will be divided into five chapters to elaborate, corresponding to each game and film interaction method. First of all, the non-linear narrative and open ending of the game will affect the formation of the film. Moreover, the FPV of the game has also become an innovative means of film shooting. Thirdly, the game and film IP adaptation, which is the most common way to affect each other. The fourth is the use of game effects in films. Finally, interactive films modeled on the game settings. In each part, the corresponding films and games will be used as specific cases to present the theme more intuitively. Besides, through the presentation of the phenomenon, some reflections will follow.
At present, although people are very familiar with games and films, they always treat them as separate concepts. However, more and more established facts have proved their mutual influence and integration. The problem is that people do not systematically understand the integration of the two, their understanding is fragmented. Through the in-depth study of this paper, such a trend will be presented, and the internal logic and driving force of their mutual influence and integration will also be exposed. In fact, the ways in which the games and films in this paper interact and blend with each other are not completely summarized, but the most widely accepted methods. In the process of the integration of the two, there are also a lot of obstacles that need to be overcome and improved. For such a problem, some suggestive future prospects will also be mentioned at the end of this paper.

2.Methodology

Games and films are very familiar areas of daily life, and then when it comes to how they affect each other, people immediately become hesitant. Adrienne Shaw claims that although there has been a great deal of ink spilt on the subject of video game culture, writers usually treat the actual definition of the term as common sense (2010). It is a very common phenomenon, namely, people are vague about the nature of things they are familiar with. In the research of this paper, some basic methods and upgrade methods are used. They can be seen as a process from how to reach the theme, analyzing the theme to understanding the theme at the end. With the deepening of the steps, the essence of the theme of this paper is also shown correspondingly.
Relevant literature collection and interview are the basic methods. Through the investigation of literature to obtain relevant information, people can comprehensively and correctly grasp some key information of relevant the theme. There are various channels to collect and research literature, and the types of literature are different, and the channels to collect and research literature are also different. Most of the materials in this paper are found in the online library. In addition, the methodology of each field is different. Hadrien Salat et al claim that multiple methodologies can be used in resistive network models (2017). Solum claims that in the field of constitution, original list methodology is very effective (2017). In the study of music performance, linguistic speech act theory is regarded as an effective methodology (Margaret Kartomi,2014). In other words, the methodology of each field is designed to the relevant discipline theory. The literature on the origin and development of games and films is the first stage of collection. Later, because games and films are mass media, some sociological, aesthetic and psychological literature will be consulted accordingly. After that, games and films are involved in business, so some economic phenomena and data will also be collected. The basic literature collection is divided into such several stages.
In this paper, the interview is very important. Compared with other methods, the interview method is conducive to understanding the thoughts and emotional reactions of the interviewees to the relevant topics, to understanding the life details of the interviewees, and to timely questioning some key issues. The reasonable and flexible use of the interview method will play a positive role in promoting the in-depth study of the theme. Generally speaking, the questions and answers of the questionnaire are subjective ideas of the designer, while the interview is a different situation. This paper will conduct in-depth interviews with three random subjects. In order to protect their privacy, their personal information will be hidden and replaced by interviewee A, B and C. All interview questions are random and not pre-arranged. It’s worth noting that they are all about games and films. The interview duration is basically 3-5 minutes.
Literature and interview are both in the initial stage, and their integration is the second stage. Some unnecessary literatures will be screened, and some core feasible views will be inspired and shaped from interviews. It can even be said that the framework of the main part of this paper is benefited from the content of the interviews to a large extent. In the process of writing this paper, there are often repeated modifications and adjustments, due to the running in of theory and practical experience. As a matter of fact, methodology is only used as a guidance in the early stage of writing a paper. In the process of writing, there will be many new problems, which need to be adjusted in time.

3.Literature Review

With the continuous integration of games and films, contemporary research on them is also increasing. Definition is the first idea studied by a lot of scholars. Heinrich S. Domingo claims that films concretize the seemingly ambiguous past by translating historical concepts into visual signs and auditory elements (2017). David Sorfa argues that all films are embroiled in an ethics that defines what we think of as morality (2016). As Rohrbach descripts the film, he claims that to generate a good description, one has to decide what part of the visual information to verbalize, i.e. recognize what is salient (2017). For the definition of film, scholars generally say that film is a modern art of vision and hearing, a comprehensive subject art, such as philosophy, and also a mass media. Rochelle Cade argues that advances in technology have pushed gaming from its early origins of simple, 2-D graphic games made for single players to games with increasing sophistication, realistic 3-D graphics, and relational and social elements inside and outside of the game (2017). Paaßen claims that games are a form of entertainment associated with sociology (2017). For the definition of video game, scholars generally say that it runs on an electronic device platform and interacts with players. From the scholars’ definition of the two, people can find the similarity in technology and culture. The similarity of the two has made them have the possibility of mutual influence and integration. Most scholars study from five dimensions.
Non-linear narrative is more used in games (Emanuela Marchetti,2015). In this article, Emanuela Marchetti mentions the opposite of non-linear narrative, that is, linear narrative has a long history and is invented by Aristotle. Besides, Emanuela Marchetti describes in detail that the game must adopt non-linear narrative in order to increase interest and suspense. In James E. Cutting’s article, linear narrative is called storytelling formula (2016). He claims that the linear narrative of the film is very old-fashioned, and it must be changed to attract the audiences’ attention. Neil Cohn claims that While simple visual narratives may depict characters engaged in events across sequential images, additional complexity appears when modulating the framing of that information within an image or film shot (2015). That is to say, whether in order to increase the visibility of the film or in terms of the shooting techniques in this article, non-linear narrative has appeared very frequently in the film.
FPV can provide players with immersive experience in the game (Okkinara,2016). He claims that in the past 10 years, the development of virtual technology based on computer technology has enabled design to be carried out from the FPV. In his article, Fukuta also detailed how the movie was filmed with the original game PFV (2018). FPV has created more possibilities for movies.
Scholars pay more attention to the economic profits created by game and film IP. Jia Li and Ed white claim that the IP value of video games is very large, so it is also very easy to be stolen and needs to be protected (2017). At the same time, he also describes the huge economic benefits brought by the movie adapted from the game, which prompted the attention of capital. Moreover, a large number of fans are also considered by him to be the key factor for the success of IP adaptation. Pañeda even builds a model to prove the huge amount of network access popular IP has (2015).
Some specific effects of the game have also attracted the attention of many scholars. Sounds in the game are considered functional (Sung-Joo Lim,2019). In this article, sound is set as a human skill, and when it is used in the game, it becomes a suggestive thing. Similarly, to gaming machines, video games employ speech, music and sound effects to structure a game, attract a player’s attention, focus players towards a certain aspect, and interact with the visual aspects of the game (Stephanie Bramley,2015). In this article, some other special effects are also introduced, such as animation.
Today there is a growing interest in human emotional reaction, which results in a number of studies constantly increasing (Cohendet,2017). In such a context, interactive films began to rise. With the maturity of technology, it has gradually changed from a conceptual type to an operational type of game. The purpose of the interaction is to enhance the audiences’ sense of participation, from the immersive viewing experience to the immersive decision-making experience. Yücelyigit points out that the rise of interactive film is on the one hand the maturity of technology, on the other hand, because the original industry has already touched the ceiling, so appropriate reform must be made (2016).
From the above literature, several points of information can be determined. Firstly, games and movies are similar and complementary. Secondly, the huge economic benefits enable people to promote their integration. Thirdly, the specific ways of their mutual influence can be divided into five dimensions to analyze.

4. Substantive chapters

In the main body of this paper, it will be divided into five chapters to interpret. In the next five chapters, the different ways in which games and films interact will be presented, and many contemporary films and games will be cited as examples.

4.1 Non-linear narrative and open ending
To begin with, the interaction between film and game lies in non-linear narrative and open ending. Stemming from the non-linear narrative elements in a new media artwork, the experience of each user and the reception of each work differ depending on the user’s choice to either reject or become immersed in the work (Selen,2015). Therefore, non-variable factors appear. Linear narrative is considered to be organized in strict accordance with the time dimension of reality, which has four parts, namely, beginning, development, climax and end. The non-linear narrative breaks the single line and orderly pattern of the linear narrative, and nonlinear single line narrative and nonlinear double line narrative all belong to its category (Bordwell,2013). Nonlinear narrative is an essential part of the game with different barriers. As a result, the ending of the films becomes open.
Most scholars in the West regard 1960 as a watershed. The generation born before that is called the “Literature generation”, and the generation born after that is called the “Audio-visual generation”. In the background of the former era, people mainly obtain knowledge and external information through characters. In the background of the latter era, with the rapid development and progress of science and technology, the popularity of television and computers is increasing. Tom Tykwer is the representative of the audio-visual generation (he was born in 1965), which has the game-film style Run Lola Run (Appendix 1). Its non-linear narrative and open ending draw on the elements of the game which has different result if a player pass different stage barriers, such as Dragon Quest (Appendix 2). In Run Lola Run, the expression of nonlinear double line narrative is theme repetition. In the case of repeated themes, there will be different open-ended film. Lola’s boyfriend, Manni, is a gangster. After an illegal transaction, Lola failed to pick him up in time. When he went to take the subway, he lost the 100000 mark he got from the illegal transaction. If twenty minutes later, he didn’t have the money to give to the gang leader, his life would be in trouble. Lola must get 100000 marks in 20 minutes in order to save her boyfriend. She could only keep running for every second, and the starting point of running is regarded as the beginning of the game. That is the theme of the film. It is the setting for Lola’s first run. She intended to borrow money from her father, but she didn’t expect her father to scold her and tell her that she was not her own father, and finally she couldn’t borrow money. The desperate Manni could only rob the supermarket, and Lola became an accomplice and was shot dead by the police. Then, the game restarted, and her second run started again. Lola could foresee ahead of time and avoid the events that delayed time, which led to the life to be different of passers-by she met, that is to say, the plot of the game changed. Her second run still failed to save her boyfriend. In the end, she robbed her father of enough money from the bank, but her boyfriend was killed by an ambulance. On the third run, she dodged all the obstacles on the road. In such a run, instead of robbing, she decided to gamble in the casino. In the end, she not only won 100000 marks, but also her boyfriend accidentally caught the homeless man who took the lost money bag and sent it to the gang leader.
Another example is Memento (Appendix 3). In 2000, the suspenseful thriller type film Memento directed by Christopher Nolan, a famous director, was officially released. The film has been sought after by a large number of fans for its fragmented narrative mode and reasoning sense of shooting. The film also won two nominations for best original script and best editing of the 74th Oscar Golden Statuettes. Leonard’s wife was killed by a ferocious gangster. Although he struggled back from the death line, Leonard got a strange “short-term memory loss” due to severe brain damage. From then on, he can only remember what happened a few minutes ago. Although in the eyes of the police, it’s just a common robbery case, Leonard’s life has been completely changed since then. Dissatisfied with the police’s rashness, Leonardo vowed to trace the murderer and avenge the tragic death of his beloved wife. It’s very similar to the setting of the game that the hero uses various clues to find out the truth.
Inception (Appendix 4) is another non-linear narrative structure, that is, play-within-a-play. Its charm lies in the fact that it uses different narrative techniques to influence the audiences’ psychology and achieve the goal of the director to set suspense. If the audience can take the real world in the film as a reference, they are: the real world, the first level dream, the second level dream, the third level dream, the fourth level dream and the lost domain. There are nine dreams in the six layers of the world, and the stories of reality and multiple dreams are unfolded at the same time. The task force led by Cobb will encounter obstacles brought by this layer of dreams every time they enter into a dream, so as to establish a relationship between the people who enter the next layer of dreams and the people who stay in the previous layer of dreams, and complicate the character connection and story. Such a setting is not only conducive to the multiple expansion of suspense, but also can skillfully control the narrative rhythm of each layer of dreams, and well control the psychological rhythm of the film. The characters travel back and forth in multiple time and space, which together constitute the classic science fiction film.
People can see that the game factor is used in the film. In the game of code programming, each code will touch a different plot. To some extent, the code is equivalent to the non-linear narrative in the film. As another different narrative is triggered, the advance of the plot will lead to the birth of another ending.

4.2 The application of FPV of the game in the film
Some producers even make First-Person films, and from simple life-logs to playing sports, the content of FPVs varies dramatically (Reibman,2018). FPV is short for first person view. It’s the usual element of the game. In fact, FPV has become the mainstream game mode. The directors use the camera to simulate the subjective and objective perspectives. With the development of game, the concept of the view has been further extended. The FPV is recognized by a great deal of action gamers. Due to FPV, the background image is usually seen by the players through the eyes of the character they are, and then it can increase the credibility of setting of the game. For example, the popular game Counter-Strike (Appendix 5) uses FPV to achieve excellent results. Gradually, FPV is also used by a lot of directors. Once the subjective lens is to replace the human eye, it must conform to the human characteristics, that is to say, it is not only the viewing mode of the human eye, but also the movement mode of the human body. In most cases, the small camera is fixed on the actor’s head and follows the actor’s violent movement, the mechanical characteristics of the camera are exposed. Due to the lack of frame rate, as the camera moves rapidly, the picture will be very blurred. Although it has limitations, Directors use hand-held camera to simulate the DV effect of the film, its unique view has a high degree of simulation, will give the audiences a strong sense of immersion, so it is sought after by specific audience groups. The description of its benefits seems to be a little vague, and then it will be analyzed by some specific contemporary films as examples.
From a sociological point of view, District 9 (Appendix6), directed by Neill Blomkamp, explores a lot of realistic issues. Racial discrimination is its theme. Notwithstanding, in addition to addressing domestic issues District 9 also makes significant references to transnational concerns around human rights, military privatization and the War on Terror prominent in news reports at the time (Abu Dhabi,2019). In the film, some realistic problems are shown through the change of the hero’s attitude towards aliens. The spectator’s view does not allow the audiences to focus on and reflect on change. FPV is able to reach such a kind of result. It is inspired by district 6. In 1867, the district 6 of South Africa was officially named. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was a multi-ethnic area, where free slaves, businessmen, artists, laborers, immigrants, sailors from various countries who visited from time to time lived, and they are black, white, Christian, Hindu, Muslim. Different cultures were mixed and full of vitality. After 1901, it began to change. In the name of ethnic harmony, the so-called Department of community development under NP announced that the district 6 must be closed. Since then, the district 6 has been plagued for many years. As mentioned above, its theme is racial discrimination, so FPV can make the audiences experience it more vividly. At the beginning of the film, with FPV, the audiences can feel strong racial discrimination from the taunts and teasing of aliens by the hero. In an interview, the hero accidentally infected with the virus. Over time, his body organs gradually changed, and eventually he became an alien. In the process of transformation, the original narrow and selfish idea has been changed, and the audiences can also feel the disadvantages of racial discrimination, which is realized through FPV.
Drew Goddard’s Cloverfield (Appendix 7) also use FPV. In the era of monster science fiction films, most directors seem to be repeating the same monster formula. Cloverfield stands out from monster science fiction films in an innovative way. Before Jason Hawkins went to work in Japan, his brother Rob Hawkins and girlfriend lily held a farewell party for him, and his friend Hud was responsible for recording the party. Disaster came without warning, the statue of Liberty’s head flew to the street, and then the house shook violently. Then the escape began. Instead of traditional special effects and montage shots, the director chose DV to shoot the whole film. In the narrow angle of FPV, a fear of escape comes as scheduled. The director once said that people live in an era full of fear, so it’s really exciting to imagine some strange and huge creatures attacking human beings’ city. Moreover, he hoped that the film could let the audiences experience the fear of omnipresent injury in an entertaining and safe way. As a result, he succeeded. Its plot is also very sophisticated, almost every 5-10 minutes, there are different monster behaviors attacking human beings, which bring the audiences’ inner fear of the unknown to the extreme. To show a film with realistic pictures and stories, the audiences can’t do without eyes, which are cameras. DV shooting will shift the focus of shooting to the eyes behind the machine, breaking the confinement of the eyes subject to the machine. When the audiences are led into the plot, they will follow the DV lens to experience, and often forget that the real shot is on the camera behind the DV. Although there is no switching and artistic lens, such a well-organized production undoubtedly makes the distance between individuals and disasters closer and more real.

4.3 IP adaptation of games and films
Pokémon Detective Pikachu (Appendix 8) is a 2019 urban fantasy mystery film directed by Rob Letterman. Although the hero of this film has changed from a Japanese boy in the game to a Westerner, and the grandfather in the game has only occupied a small plot, people must admit that it is a successful game adaptation. Once the time goes back, Tomb Raider (Appendix 9) is the first film to be adapted successfully from the game. Famous actress Angelina Jolie played Lara Croft. At the same time, paramount spent $115 million to shoot around the world. The hot scenes guaranteed by the powerful production cost and the sexy Angelina’s perfect restoration of Lara made it achieve good box office results. In fact, it is not the first film adapted from a game. The first film adapted from the game was the Super Mario Bros (Appendix 10). It was released in 1993, adapted from the game of the same name on FC platform, with an investment of up to 48 million US dollars. Allied filmmakers, who spent a lot of money to buy the adaptation rights of Super Mario Bros, didn’t understand the game at all. They just looked at the Mario whirlwind that Nintendo had blown up in the United States at that time. It failed in the end. Its failure did not prevent people from adapting the game into a film, which also led to the success of Pokémon Detective Pikachu and Tomb Raider. To some extent, adaptation is the way in which the games and the films influence each other the most. A popular term “IP” will be involved.
With the coming of pan-entertainment era, the value of IP industry is being explored. IP consumer market is also expanding, which is actually a battlefield of cultural output. The strength of IP lies in that once it contacts the audience groups who have similar world outlook and values, it will quickly agglomerate and develop into a culture, which will continue to progress, develop and inherit. The famous game is a significant IP. Next, some data can be used to show why some people are keen to adapt game IP into film. The total value of the global video game industry is as high as 65 billion US dollars. Within 24 hours of the release of Microsoft’s Xbox One and Sony’s PlayStation 4 consoles in November 2013, over 1 million units of each were sold. Within 18 days, sales for each console hit the two million mark (David Greenspan,2014). The profit is so huge. Moreover, popular game IP also has a large number of fans. With the continuous evolution of the game, more and more fans of different kinds of games are in the world, and they are the main force of the films, which will spend their money on their ardent love. The IP of a famous game is the basic guarantee of box office. Instead of painstakingly writing a new film IP, it’s better to start with a famous game directly, which can greatly reduce the workload, and also get better results in the publicity. These reasons can explain why a large number of filmmakers want to adapt a popular game IP into a film. It should be noted that it is not easy to adapt a popular IP game into a popular film. There are some factors that need to be noticed.
Resident Evil (Appendix11), Silent Hill (Appendix12), Far Cry (Appendix13), Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time (Appendix14), Hitman (Appendix15), they are films adapted by famous game IP. It takes a lot of effort for filmmakers to adapt a popular IP game into a film with good box office.
In fact, only a few games can be adapted into films. Many educational and competitive games are not suitable for big screen. Most of the existing game-films come from the role-playing games with large background, many characters and complex plot. There are a lot of obstacles to adapt from a game to a film, such as the consistency and breakthrough of plot, the continuity and difference of style, the assumption and authenticity of characters. For example, it should not only avoid the boredom of “watching others play games” brought to the audience by the highly restored Final Fantasy (Appendix16), but also avoid the simple application of image symbols of the game like Angry Birds (Appendix17). What’s more, in the process of adaptation, how can filmmakers fully respect the sense of participation of the players and release the imagination of the audiences? Games and films mobilize different thinking. People get pleasure through games and films in different ways. Game form is open, dynamic, connected, immersed and nonlinear, while film is closed, static, isolated, onlooking and linear. For the game players, looking for maps, doing tasks, socializing with other players, and feeling their own growth are the charm of a game, which obviously cannot be achieved by a film. In the process of changing from a game to a film, the editor restricts the players’ exploration. The camera replaces the mouse in the hand, and the actor acts as the hero of the game. In addition, the third person view replaces the original first-person view, and deprives the players of their subjectivity. In fact, IP film, fan film, pan-entertainment and other hot terms can’t make a movie succeed naturally. IP adaptation has quite positive significance in media integration, industrial integration and cultural integration, but the success of a film can only complies with the law of a film itself.
To adapt the game IP into a quality film, the filmmakers should focus on the creation of content rather than the imitation of form. Steven Allan Spielberg is a good player and filmmaker. His film Ready Player One (Appendix18) is so impressed. Its story is very attractive. Oasis’s game designer lost his love and friendship due to social barriers and poor communication. He didn’t realize the value of the real-life world until he died. The film’s hero came to oasis to escape from reality, but he found something far more important than himself in the process of looking for the eggs. Finally, he made real friends and found true love. The success of virtual world still cannot solve the frustration and loneliness in real life. Steven Allan Spielberg’s exposure and Reflection on the two sides of VR is one of the reasons for the success of such a film adapted from the game.
Nowadays, the game is gradually developing towards cinematic narration, and it has more and more various elements of film. With the game mechanism, its entertainment has far exceeded the form of film. The game is a complex medium, which has entered into the public daily range, so the craze to adapt a game into a film is still popular.

4.4 The use of game effects in films
With the help of game effect, a film can break through its original boundary. The effect of using the game in the film is simply from the shooting technique. For example, Joe Cox and Daniel Kaimann’s argument “Because of high development costs and uncertain market demand, it is vitally important for video game developers and publishers to be able to forecast product sales efficiently, in particular those of new products at the beginning of their life cycles” is not included (2015). It does not involve complex business operations and humanistic reflection.
To begin with, a film’s imitation of a game effect is the use of sound. On the one hand, the sound effect strengthens recognition. On the other hand, it can prompt players to operate and indicate the process of the game. As playing video games, the sound effect appears, the players become the decision-makers who decide whether to find the source. They can choose to find it or ignore it. Such a difference highlights the indicative role of sound effect in the game. In order to make the players have a deep sense of immersion and interactive experience, game designers need to make good use of sound effect to indicate where the players need to pay attention to and what events can promote the game process. For example, when a character operated by a player enters a multi fork intersection, the choice of the branch road is randomly determined by the player. In the case of completely letting players make decisions, it may take a lot of time to make detours, and some impatient players are likely to choose to give up. If the number of detours is reduced, and the players only walk along the set route mechanically, the game process will be monotonous. Therefore, the game designer can use some kind of sound effect (such as the sound of enemies moving around, the sound of teammates greeting) to prompt a general direction which is the most attractive to the player. Under normal circumstances, the player will choose this route, make a so-called “own choice” unconsciously, and bring a sense of achievement because of “the right choice made by himself or herself”. Sound effect has become one of the necessary elements for players to successfully complete the game. When watching a film, the sound effect can indicate the appearance of a character or the occurrence of an event, or it can only convey certain information to the audiences, which is decided by the director. A detailed interpretation of it can be obtained through specific films. God of Gamblers (Appendix 19) is a good example. Gao Jin is a world-famous gambling king. He accepted the invitation of a Japanese gang friend and dueled with Chen Jincheng, also known as the gambling king of Singapore, on the card table. Before the duel, he accidentally stepped into a trap and fell down the hillside to become amnesia. Gao Jin lost his memory and lived in the house of Knife boy, a hooligan. His girlfriend Jane took good care of him. Knife boy has benefited and suffered from amnesiac Gao Jin’s high-level gambling. e, Gao Jin’s cousin Gao Yi was drunk and broke into Gao Jin’s girlfriend Janet’s room. He had evil ideas about her, but he accidentally killed Janet, burned the tape and sent someone to kill Gao Jin. Fortunately, the bodyguard Long Wu saved him. He recovered his memory when he was hit by a car in the escape. So, he chose to go to the gambling boat to fight. With the classic sound effects (Appendix20), his presence has impressed a generation.
Secondly, the combination of live action and game animation effect is also a technical innovation. Garfield, is a good example (Appendix21). Garfield was born on June 19, 1978. His name is from James Abram Garfield, the 20th president of the United States. He is an orange fat cat that eats human food. Garfield is a fictional character. However, with the development of technology, it can also appear in live action films. Sin city (Appendix22) is also a typical example. It’s made up of three stories, all in the virtual city of sin, where the police and the thugs are no different. Violence destroys everything and protects everything. In the three stories, most of the pictures are from the game. Marv, who was ugly and hot tempered, met Gail, a blonde, and a one-night stand gave Marv the warmth he never had (Appendix23). However, when he woke up, he found Gail lying next to him murdered. His heart was kindled by the flames of anger and revenge, vowing to investigate the truth and find the murderer who killed his love (Appendix24). Dwight McCarthy used to be a criminal. After plastic surgery, he became a boyfriend of the bartender Shellie, and taught her a lesson about her tangled ex-boyfriend, Jackie boy, who was violent. Dwight McCarthy followed Jackie boy and his gang to the old town ruled by the prostitute gang. Jackie boy did not follow the rules and was killed by prostitutes. Then they found that Jackie boy was a policeman. His death broke the agreement between prostitutes and the police. Dwight McCarthy has to help them cover up their crimes and protect their rights (Appendix25). Hartigan is retiring due to a heart attack. In the last hour of his police career, he received intelligence that Senator’s son Roark Jr. kidnapped 11-year-old Nancy, who was the main suspect in several rapes. Hartigan rescued Nancy by himself, abandoned Roark Jr. and was seriously injured (Appendix26). For the next eight years, Roger’s father, a senator, used his power to keep him in jail (Appendix27). The plot continues. The film is full of blood, darkness and even dismemberment. Because some of the directors’ ultimate ideas cannot be realized by realistic means, only through caricature can they achieve the ideal effect.
With the filmmakers becoming more and more picky about the shooting methods of films, learning from games has become a breakthrough way. Through the introduction of some special game effects, a film becomes more attractive and can provide better audio-visual experience for the audience. That is to say, some feelings that could not be visualized have changed, which will make the audiences have a more intuitive contact with the content of a film, thus producing resonance.

4.5Interactive film modeled on the game settings
Interactive film is a type of game, which is characterized by similar film and focuses on screenwriting (Pomerance,2016). Usually, such a kind of game will use the animation made by live action capture or live action films to represent the game content. Interactivity is the most distinctive feature of games, which is reflected in the development of the audiences’ participation in the plot of the film. Interactive film is still in its infancy. Games have become the main reference for interactive films, and it also provide positive enlightenment for the improvement of the structure mode and viewing mode of contemporary films. At present, it is a very new type of game with a lot of disadvantages. To begin with, the current interactive film is mainly concentrated in the genre of suspense. In fact, there are a lot of types worth and suitable for developing interactive film. For example, people can use the subjective view to shoot love interactive games or adventure games which could guide players to a totally new world. Moreover, its logic is not strong enough, resulting in inferior viewing experience. While surprisingly in this way of production, people have also found that the creative power of content is limited. Most interactive films have logical shortcomings due to cost issues and difficulty in production. The narrative technique of traditional film is difficult to implement under too many branches, which is very challenging for the creator. As a result, the pre-production of these interactive films is very difficult. The script has to be repeatedly scrutinized, and the camera shots need to be fabulous, which will raise the cost and increase the difficulty of profit. For the interactive film, the branch of the plot is indispensable, so the cost of shooting the interactive film may be several times that of the traditional film. It is undoubtedly a major pressure for the later broadcast and marketing. Nevertheless, the popularity of interactive films continues.
Black Mirror: Bandersnatch (Appendix28) is a good example. In 2018, Netflix released Black Mirror: Bandersnatch, an interactive “choose your own adventure” film. As soon as it was released, fans began to interpret its narrative branches, analyze its symbolism, and look for its Easter eggs. The audience must watch the episode step by step online on Netflix without offline download or progress bar. In the process of watching, two options will pop up on the screen at any time to let the audiences decide the next action of the hero, and the choice of each step will affect the different development of the story. Just like many films will have multiple ending versions, it has also made several more versions of the plot, which is an interactive way for the audiences to choose the plot during the watching process. In 1984, Stefan, a programmer who lost his mother when he was young, wanted to develop a game adapted from the novel Bandersnatch. It is also interactive. Players only need to choose one from the other all the time to make the game develop. His idea won the recognition of the game company, and the boss asked Stefan to make the game. But in the process of writing the game, Stefan gradually fell into the illusion of struggling with his mother’s tragic past and blaming his father. Because he hid Stefan’s dolls, his mother missed one train and got on the next derailed train. What’s more, Stefan was seriously influenced by the novel and fell into the same skepticism as the novelist. In fact, the choice of the audiences is very important for the fate of the hero. The audience almost had to choose from the beginning. It was up to Stefan to decide which brand of cereal to eat for breakfast and which tape to listen to on the bus. With the continuous selection, the plot began to change significantly. What matters is not the ending, but what drives Stefan crazy. Interactive film can let the audience choose a character to follow up, which is to let them and the characters get the synchronous feeling. At the beginning, an audience replaced himself or herself with Stefan, a programmer, who constantly chose different options, tried to escape the illusion and try to find the truth. But gradually, he realized that he was under the control of others, and that person was a random audience in front of the screen. That is to say, the “devil” of the story is not the father, the psychologist, the so-called government conspiracy, but the audiences.
There are two aspects to evaluate the plot of an interactive films, one is the plot, the other is the choice of players. Whether the plot is complete, whether the branches are rich, and how much they touch the players’ emotions are very important. Even if it just recreates the classic films, the experience brought by the game to the audience is always unique. Only in the game can the audiences really have the opportunity to try to become the person in the play, to stand in the position of “he” or “she” to influence the development of the story and change the fate of “oneself”, rather than a spectator outside the play. So, whether it’s Black Mirror: Bandersnatch or any other similar works, it’s absolutely not advisable to treat them only by “watching”, which is tantamount to denying the fundamental value of interactive films.

5. Conclusion

Films and games are highly dependent on technology, have strong momentum of development, and have commonalities in art forms, production methods, entertainment hotspots and other aspects, but they also have great complementarities. These similarities and complementarities provide a solid foundation for their industrial cooperation. Nowadays, they have become the favorite form of entertainment for young people. Although decisive words can cause misunderstanding in an academic paper, there is no doubt that games and films have influenced and integrated each other.
In this paper, the five main methods about the interaction between games and films mark that their boundaries are gradually crossed. In the early stage of film development, its narrative is linear, that is to say, it abides by the rules. In fact, the films also need to learn from the non-linear narrative structure in the games because the traditional linear narrative structure has reached its ceiling. Narrative structure is often used as a skeleton to support the overall framework of the games. The non-linear narrative structure can not only promote each other’s play, but also control the players’ emotions and strengthen the immersion of the games. Similarly, it can achieve the same effect in the film. Secondly, no matter in the games or in the films, FPV can make the players or the audience have a strong sense of substitution. On the other hand, films made from the FPV are easy to annoy the audiences, because they think that the shaking camera caused their vertigo. Thirdly, in the process of game and movie integration, IP adaptation is the most familiar way. Nowadays, more and more game companies are no longer relying on games to make profits, but to develop large-scale IP based on a well-known game, and to develop film forms under this IP. A large number of game IP has been adapted into films, but there are few successful examples. To a certain extent, although IP has the favor of capital and a large number of fans, the careless treatment will not make IP obtain huge economic benefits. Moreover, the sound effect and animation in the games can be used for reference by the films to update the shooting techniques. Finally, interactive film is the most popular way to blend the two. Its disadvantages are the most. It’s very difficult to write interactive films. In addition, it’s not conducive to the growth of interactive films without a certain profit model. However, it can continue to be improved as the latest extension mode of games and films integration. At the same time, other ways are not without disadvantages. When games and films have reached a certain stage, their integration and future promotion are necessary and need to be taken into consideration.
For example, in the initial stage of IP development, relevant personnel need to consider how to develop films and how to design games. While ensuring the IP characteristics, relevant personnel would better find some combination points and extend each other. In marketing, relevant personnel can even consider to let users participate in, according to the needs of users, constantly improve the film plot and game content, so as to better meet the needs of the public. Besides, in marketing and promotion, the game industry and film industry should cooperate with each other to jointly improve the public’s attention to IP. Generally speaking, there are two ways to improve these conditions. The first way is to find a better profit model. Secondly, content is the key to success. These approaches can also be used to improve other conditions. The deep integration of film and game is the general trend of pan-entertainment industry in the future. Under this trend, new forms of film and game are likely to appear in the future. Two industries are entering a more mature period of in-depth transformation. Many companies, from the game business, film business, IP reserves, industrial chain resources, integration capabilities and other aspects have a stronger strength and excellent collaborative interaction ability. It can be predicted that as the driving force of the collision between film and game, the integration of the two will stimulate the emerging cultural industry to usher in the market explosion again.

6.Bibliographies

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7.Filmographies
Black Mirror: Bandersnatch, David Slade,2018
Cloverfield, Drew Goddard,2008
Garfield, Peter Hewitt,2004
District 9, Neill Blomkamp,2009
Detroit: Become Human, David Cage,2018
Far Cry, Uwe Boll,2008.
God of Gamblers, Jing Wong,1989
Hitman, Among Friends,2007
Inception, Christopher Nolan,2010
Kung Fu, Stephen Chow,2004
Memento, Christopher Nolan ,2000
Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time, Mike Newell,2010
Pokémon Detective Pikachu, Rob Letterman,2019
Run Lola Run, Tom Tykwer,1988
Resident Evil, Paul Anderson,2002
Ready Player One, Steven Allan Spielberg,2018
Super Mario Bros, Annabel Jankel, Rocky Morton,1993
Silent Hill, Christophe Gans,2006.
Sin City, Robert Rodriguez, Frank Miller, Quentin Tarantino,2005
Tomb Raider, Simon West,2001
Warcraft, Duncan Jones,2016.

8.Appendices

Interview A
Interviewer: Good morning, may I have a simple interview with you?
Interviewee A: Of course, I’m very interested. What is it about?
Interviewer: The topic of the interview is about video games and films. What’s your first impression of them?
Interviewee A: Recently, I just watched Gemini Man starring Willard Christopher Smith Jr. It’s wonderful. Can you imagine a 51-year-old killer meeting a 21-year-old? It is the innovation of film technology. In addition, among our small groups, Tencent’s PUBG is a shooting game that we all pay attention to, similar to CS, but it is more exciting. In the game, players need to collect all kinds of resources on the game map, and confront other players in the shrinking security area, so that they can survive to the end.
Interviewer: Wow, you’re addicted to it. What factors do you think make you interested in it? You know, PUBG.
Interviewee A: Its first-person view can allow you to experience immersively. Moreover, its sound effect is really great. Lots of weapons to choose from, AK47, bombs, knives, etc. You can become teammates with real friends or strangers from other regions to fight against other players. I’m really fascinated by it.
Interviewer: It seems that you are familiar with both films and games. Do you know that they have started to influence each other?
Interviewee A: It seems so. To be honest, I’m a bit vague. Can I give you a hint?
Interviewer: Do you know Pokémon Detective Pikachu? It’s a film adapted from the game.
Interviewee A: Oh, it reminds me of many classic Nintendo games, Super Mario Bros, Contra and so on. I don’t know if they are also adapted into film. I need to search.
Interviewer: In fact, there are, but some have succeeded and some have failed. As the old saying goes, everything has two sides.
Interviewee A: It suddenly occurred to me that they really influenced each other. That is, they are all in the same lucrative business. In my impression, the profits unit of the game industry and the film industry are all base on a hundred million.
Interviewer: It’s true that they can all make huge economic profits, so the others, you know?
Interviewee A: I think I should go back to find the relevant information.
Interviewer: Thank you so much for your interview.
Interviewee A: You’re welcome!

Interview B
Interviewer: Nice to meet you!
Interviewee B: Nice to meet you, too!
Interviewer: You seem to be very knowledgeable, because you are wearing glasses, maybe you will be familiar with the topic of my interview. My interview topic is whether you know the blending of games and movies.
Interviewee B: It’s a very common phenomenon. Now, most of the popular films draw on the elements of the game. Many famous game IP is adapted into movies as a way, such as Warcraft. It is the Bible of generations, that is to say, it has a large number of fans, so its box office has also been a basic guarantee, which is the source of director’s confidence. In addition, I’ve been focusing on an American play, which is also a very famous game. Now it’s played as an interactive film, Black Mirror: Bandersnatch. You know, it really suits me. I’ve always been a puzzle fan and a veteran mystery fan. In fact, I just heard that I haven’t experienced it myself.
Interviewer: It seems that you fully agree that the integration of the two has become an unchangeable trend.
Interviewee B: Undoubtedly! They also have to be integrated. There are too many ways of entertainment for modern people, which requires innovation in the game and film industry. The demand of the market and the attention of the capital make them take a wise way to influence each other.
Interviewer: My first impression is not wrong. You are very knowledgeable indeed.
Interviewee B: You are flattering me. I just analyze video games and films from my daily experience, not like scholars who specialize in them. Strictly speaking, my understanding of the specific situation of their integration is not very comprehensive.
Interviewer: I think you know a lot.
Interviewee B: It’s nice talking with you, but I’m still busy. I’m afraid it’s over.
Interviewer: OK, thank you sincerely!
Interviewee B: Have a great time. Goodbye!

Interview C
Interviewer: Hello, nice day!
Interviewee C: As long as you keep in a good mood, the weather will always be good. Are you going to interview me? Tell me, what’s the theme?
Interviewer: Video games and films.
Interviewee C: Very familiar topic, look at me, typical video game fans and film fans. Do you want to ask what are the most impressive video games and movies? That’s too much to say for a while.
Interviewer: I’m happy to listen, and I want you to talk about which ways they influence each other.
Interviewee C: I can talk a lot about the first half. I’m afraid I don’t know much about the second half, because it’s a little academic
Interviewer: The last interviewer told me that it is a common phenomenon.
Interviewee C: I don’t know much about it, but I remember a film. It’s a film directed by Stephen Chow, Kung Fu. In the film, some exaggerated plots may be based on game factors, such as the chase scene between the hero and the landlady. The running hero’s legs are the same as the wheel. In addition, the compact sound effect is the same as the cue in the game.
Interviewer: Look, you know a lot.
Interviewee C: I just say what I think, and I don’t know anything else.
Interviewer: OK, you seem to be going out to play.
Interviewee C: Yes, I’m afraid our conversation is coming to an end.
Interviewer: Enjoy yourself!
Interviewee C: Thanks!

文学电影论文代写 What are the key ways that film and game into related in contemporary movie image culture?

What are the key ways that film and game into related in contemporary movie image culture?

Student ID:xxxx
MA FILM
Supervisor:xxxx
Due:7 November 2019

Table of Contents
1.Introduction 3
2.Methodology 4
3.Literature Review 6
4. Substantive chapters 7
4.1 Non-linear narrative and open ending 7
4.2 The application of FPV of the game in the film 9
4.3 IP adaptation of games and films 10
4.4 The use of game effects in films 12
4.5Interactive film modeled on the game settings 14
5. Conclusion 16
6.Bibliographies 17
7.Filmographies 19
8.Appendices 19


1.Introduction

As one of the most important mass media, film has gone through more than 100 years since it appeared in the late 19th century. Film is closely related to people’s life. People’s thoughts, behaviors and consciousness are influenced by it imperceptibly, and at the same time, they accept the unprecedented aesthetic and cultural experience brought by it. The Games in this paper refer to video games, and the following are simplified as games. Game was formally born in the 1950s, and gradually accepted by people. Game has become the basis of an important entertainment industry in Japan, the United States and Europe in the late 1970s.Game is a new product after decades of film development. However, in a very short time, it quickly mixes with film magically and creates unexpected effects. In fact, the economic value of both is amazing. According to MPAA’s reliable data sources, the global box office in 2016 was very prosperous, breaking last year’s record, increasing by 1%, with a total amount of US $38.6 billion (Xinhua,2017). By 2017, the total amount of global film box office reached 40.6 billion US dollars, an increase of 5% over the previous year. In 2018, global box office revenue amounted to 41.1 billion U.S. dollars, marking an increase from the previous year (Amy Watson,2019). At present, the world’s game giants are Sony Computer Entertainment and Nintendo in Japan, Microsoft in the United States and Tencent in China. In 2018, the market was expected to be worth approximately 115 billion U.S. dollars and the source projects the industry revenues to surpass 138 billion by 2021 (Christina Gough,2018). Global video games revenue will reach $210bn by 2023, with mobile gaming accounting for the majority of revenue (Consumer & Entertainment Services,2018). The huge economic value makes the integration of games and films develop rapidly. Academic interest coincides with the rise of digitalization and the accompanying business models and data (Jehoshua Eliashberg, etc. 2016). Since the trend of game and film integration has been irreversible, the following methodology, literature review and substantive chapters will focus on such a theme.
Ingeniously, the methodology and the theme of this paper correspond to each other. Generally speaking, methodology is the research guidance of a paper. After it has been carefully constructed, the next parts will proceed step by step, that is to say, the process is linear. Although a large number of literature materials and some well-prepared interviews have been carried out in advance, they have been proved to be not able to support the smooth development of the paper in the process of writing, but only an inspiration. To some extent, the methodology of this paper is nonlinear. At the beginning, the preparation of literature and interview are two obvious methods. However, in the process of writing, some new and better ideas appeared, and the old ideas were rejected. New ideas are like new props that are accidentally harvested in the game. Once triggered, a new plot will be born. The starting point of this paper comes from experience. Through experience, a large number of original materials are accumulated. In the next step, these materials will be observed, that is, recollection, thinking, reflection, integration, from which valuable gains and experiences will be abstracted. Finally, several key points related to the theme are extracted and form the system of this paper.
The collection and selection of literature review will be divided into three parts. To clarify the concept of film and game is the work of the first preparation stage of the literature. The game and the film develop respectively, and then at a specific node, their lines cross. That is to say, the preparation of literatures about the origin and development history of the two is not separate, but trying to find their similarities. Through the literature, people can know that the blending of games and films is certain. The next step in literature preparation will focus on how they interact with each other. In the second stage, the purpose of literature preparation is to get enlightenment and verification in the previous scholars’ research, and then extract unique views through independent thinking. It is worth noting that the time dimension of literature is very critical, almost all of which will be selected within 5 years. In addition, some original reading books will be partially used. After all, the information in the digital age is updated very quickly, and some views have been outdated or even proved unreasonable.
Next is the main part of this paper, which will be divided into five chapters to elaborate, corresponding to each game and film interaction method. First of all, the non-linear narrative and open ending of the game will affect the formation of the film. Moreover, the FPV of the game has also become an innovative means of film shooting. Thirdly, the game and film IP adaptation, which is the most common way to affect each other. The fourth is the use of game effects in films. Finally, interactive films modeled on the game settings. In each part, the corresponding films and games will be used as specific cases to present the theme more intuitively. Besides, through the presentation of the phenomenon, some reflections will follow.
At present, although people are very familiar with games and films, they always treat them as separate concepts. However, more and more established facts have proved their mutual influence and integration. The problem is that people do not systematically understand the integration of the two, their understanding is fragmented. Through the in-depth study of this paper, such a trend will be presented, and the internal logic and driving force of their mutual influence and integration will also be exposed. In fact, the ways in which the games and films in this paper interact and blend with each other are not completely summarized, but the most widely accepted methods. In the process of the integration of the two, there are also a lot of obstacles that need to be overcome and improved. For such a problem, some suggestive future prospects will also be mentioned at the end of this paper.

2.Methodology

Games and films are very familiar areas of daily life, and then when it comes to how they affect each other, people immediately become hesitant. Adrienne Shaw claims that although there has been a great deal of ink spilt on the subject of video game culture, writers usually treat the actual definition of the term as common sense (2010). It is a very common phenomenon, namely, people are vague about the nature of things they are familiar with. In the research of this paper, some basic methods and upgrade methods are used. They can be seen as a process from how to reach the theme, analyzing the theme to understanding the theme at the end. With the deepening of the steps, the essence of the theme of this paper is also shown correspondingly.
Relevant literature collection and interview are the basic methods. Through the investigation of literature to obtain relevant information, people can comprehensively and correctly grasp some key information of relevant the theme. There are various channels to collect and research literature, and the types of literature are different, and the channels to collect and research literature are also different. Most of the materials in this paper are found in the online library. In addition, the methodology of each field is different. Hadrien Salat et al claim that multiple methodologies can be used in resistive network models (2017). Solum claims that in the field of constitution, original list methodology is very effective (2017). In the study of music performance, linguistic speech act theory is regarded as an effective methodology (Margaret Kartomi,2014). In other words, the methodology of each field is designed to the relevant discipline theory. The literature on the origin and development of games and films is the first stage of collection. Later, because games and films are mass media, some sociological, aesthetic and psychological literature will be consulted accordingly. After that, games and films are involved in business, so some economic phenomena and data will also be collected. The basic literature collection is divided into such several stages.
In this paper, the interview is very important. Compared with other methods, the interview method is conducive to understanding the thoughts and emotional reactions of the interviewees to the relevant topics, to understanding the life details of the interviewees, and to timely questioning some key issues. The reasonable and flexible use of the interview method will play a positive role in promoting the in-depth study of the theme. Generally speaking, the questions and answers of the questionnaire are subjective ideas of the designer, while the interview is a different situation. This paper will conduct in-depth interviews with three random subjects. In order to protect their privacy, their personal information will be hidden and replaced by interviewee A, B and C. All interview questions are random and not pre-arranged. It’s worth noting that they are all about games and films. The interview duration is basically 3-5 minutes.
Literature and interview are both in the initial stage, and their integration is the second stage. Some unnecessary literatures will be screened, and some core feasible views will be inspired and shaped from interviews. It can even be said that the framework of the main part of this paper is benefited from the content of the interviews to a large extent. In the process of writing this paper, there are often repeated modifications and adjustments, due to the running in of theory and practical experience. As a matter of fact, methodology is only used as a guidance in the early stage of writing a paper. In the process of writing, there will be many new problems, which need to be adjusted in time.

3.Literature Review

With the continuous integration of games and films, contemporary research on them is also increasing. Definition is the first idea studied by a lot of scholars. Heinrich S. Domingo claims that films concretize the seemingly ambiguous past by translating historical concepts into visual signs and auditory elements (2017). David Sorfa argues that all films are embroiled in an ethics that defines what we think of as morality (2016). As Rohrbach descripts the film, he claims that to generate a good description, one has to decide what part of the visual information to verbalize, i.e. recognize what is salient (2017). For the definition of film, scholars generally say that film is a modern art of vision and hearing, a comprehensive subject art, such as philosophy, and also a mass media. Rochelle Cade argues that advances in technology have pushed gaming from its early origins of simple, 2-D graphic games made for single players to games with increasing sophistication, realistic 3-D graphics, and relational and social elements inside and outside of the game (2017). Paaßen claims that games are a form of entertainment associated with sociology (2017). For the definition of video game, scholars generally say that it runs on an electronic device platform and interacts with players. From the scholars’ definition of the two, people can find the similarity in technology and culture. The similarity of the two has made them have the possibility of mutual influence and integration. Most scholars study from five dimensions.
Non-linear narrative is more used in games (Emanuela Marchetti,2015). In this article, Emanuela Marchetti mentions the opposite of non-linear narrative, that is, linear narrative has a long history and is invented by Aristotle. Besides, Emanuela Marchetti describes in detail that the game must adopt non-linear narrative in order to increase interest and suspense. In James E. Cutting’s article, linear narrative is called storytelling formula (2016). He claims that the linear narrative of the film is very old-fashioned, and it must be changed to attract the audiences’ attention. Neil Cohn claims that While simple visual narratives may depict characters engaged in events across sequential images, additional complexity appears when modulating the framing of that information within an image or film shot (2015). That is to say, whether in order to increase the visibility of the film or in terms of the shooting techniques in this article, non-linear narrative has appeared very frequently in the film.
FPV can provide players with immersive experience in the game (Okkinara,2016). He claims that in the past 10 years, the development of virtual technology based on computer technology has enabled design to be carried out from the FPV. In his article, Fukuta also detailed how the movie was filmed with the original game PFV (2018). FPV has created more possibilities for movies.
Scholars pay more attention to the economic profits created by game and film IP. Jia Li and Ed white claim that the IP value of video games is very large, so it is also very easy to be stolen and needs to be protected (2017). At the same time, he also describes the huge economic benefits brought by the movie adapted from the game, which prompted the attention of capital. Moreover, a large number of fans are also considered by him to be the key factor for the success of IP adaptation. Pañeda even builds a model to prove the huge amount of network access popular IP has (2015).
Some specific effects of the game have also attracted the attention of many scholars. Sounds in the game are considered functional (Sung-Joo Lim,2019). In this article, sound is set as a human skill, and when it is used in the game, it becomes a suggestive thing. Similarly, to gaming machines, video games employ speech, music and sound effects to structure a game, attract a player’s attention, focus players towards a certain aspect, and interact with the visual aspects of the game (Stephanie Bramley,2015). In this article, some other special effects are also introduced, such as animation.
Today there is a growing interest in human emotional reaction, which results in a number of studies constantly increasing (Cohendet,2017). In such a context, interactive films began to rise. With the maturity of technology, it has gradually changed from a conceptual type to an operational type of game. The purpose of the interaction is to enhance the audiences’ sense of participation, from the immersive viewing experience to the immersive decision-making experience. Yücelyigit points out that the rise of interactive film is on the one hand the maturity of technology, on the other hand, because the original industry has already touched the ceiling, so appropriate reform must be made (2016).
From the above literature, several points of information can be determined. Firstly, games and movies are similar and complementary. Secondly, the huge economic benefits enable people to promote their integration. Thirdly, the specific ways of their mutual influence can be divided into five dimensions to analyze.

4. Substantive chapters

In the main body of this paper, it will be divided into five chapters to interpret. In the next five chapters, the different ways in which games and films interact will be presented, and many contemporary films and games will be cited as examples.

4.1 Non-linear narrative and open ending
To begin with, the interaction between film and game lies in non-linear narrative and open ending. Stemming from the non-linear narrative elements in a new media artwork, the experience of each user and the reception of each work differ depending on the user’s choice to either reject or become immersed in the work (Selen,2015). Therefore, non-variable factors appear. Linear narrative is considered to be organized in strict accordance with the time dimension of reality, which has four parts, namely, beginning, development, climax and end. The non-linear narrative breaks the single line and orderly pattern of the linear narrative, and nonlinear single line narrative and nonlinear double line narrative all belong to its category (Bordwell,2013). Nonlinear narrative is an essential part of the game with different barriers. As a result, the ending of the films becomes open.
Most scholars in the West regard 1960 as a watershed. The generation born before that is called the “Literature generation”, and the generation born after that is called the “Audio-visual generation”. In the background of the former era, people mainly obtain knowledge and external information through characters. In the background of the latter era, with the rapid development and progress of science and technology, the popularity of television and computers is increasing. Tom Tykwer is the representative of the audio-visual generation (he was born in 1965), which has the game-film style Run Lola Run (Appendix 1). Its non-linear narrative and open ending draw on the elements of the game which has different result if a player pass different stage barriers, such as Dragon Quest (Appendix 2). In Run Lola Run, the expression of nonlinear double line narrative is theme repetition. In the case of repeated themes, there will be different open-ended film. Lola’s boyfriend, Manni, is a gangster. After an illegal transaction, Lola failed to pick him up in time. When he went to take the subway, he lost the 100000 mark he got from the illegal transaction. If twenty minutes later, he didn’t have the money to give to the gang leader, his life would be in trouble. Lola must get 100000 marks in 20 minutes in order to save her boyfriend. She could only keep running for every second, and the starting point of running is regarded as the beginning of the game. That is the theme of the film. It is the setting for Lola’s first run. She intended to borrow money from her father, but she didn’t expect her father to scold her and tell her that she was not her own father, and finally she couldn’t borrow money. The desperate Manni could only rob the supermarket, and Lola became an accomplice and was shot dead by the police. Then, the game restarted, and her second run started again. Lola could foresee ahead of time and avoid the events that delayed time, which led to the life to be different of passers-by she met, that is to say, the plot of the game changed. Her second run still failed to save her boyfriend. In the end, she robbed her father of enough money from the bank, but her boyfriend was killed by an ambulance. On the third run, she dodged all the obstacles on the road. In such a run, instead of robbing, she decided to gamble in the casino. In the end, she not only won 100000 marks, but also her boyfriend accidentally caught the homeless man who took the lost money bag and sent it to the gang leader.
Another example is Memento (Appendix 3). In 2000, the suspenseful thriller type film Memento directed by Christopher Nolan, a famous director, was officially released. The film has been sought after by a large number of fans for its fragmented narrative mode and reasoning sense of shooting. The film also won two nominations for best original script and best editing of the 74th Oscar Golden Statuettes. Leonard’s wife was killed by a ferocious gangster. Although he struggled back from the death line, Leonard got a strange “short-term memory loss” due to severe brain damage. From then on, he can only remember what happened a few minutes ago. Although in the eyes of the police, it’s just a common robbery case, Leonard’s life has been completely changed since then. Dissatisfied with the police’s rashness, Leonardo vowed to trace the murderer and avenge the tragic death of his beloved wife. It’s very similar to the setting of the game that the hero uses various clues to find out the truth.
Inception (Appendix 4) is another non-linear narrative structure, that is, play-within-a-play. Its charm lies in the fact that it uses different narrative techniques to influence the audiences’ psychology and achieve the goal of the director to set suspense. If the audience can take the real world in the film as a reference, they are: the real world, the first level dream, the second level dream, the third level dream, the fourth level dream and the lost domain. There are nine dreams in the six layers of the world, and the stories of reality and multiple dreams are unfolded at the same time. The task force led by Cobb will encounter obstacles brought by this layer of dreams every time they enter into a dream, so as to establish a relationship between the people who enter the next layer of dreams and the people who stay in the previous layer of dreams, and complicate the character connection and story. Such a setting is not only conducive to the multiple expansion of suspense, but also can skillfully control the narrative rhythm of each layer of dreams, and well control the psychological rhythm of the film. The characters travel back and forth in multiple time and space, which together constitute the classic science fiction film.
People can see that the game factor is used in the film. In the game of code programming, each code will touch a different plot. To some extent, the code is equivalent to the non-linear narrative in the film. As another different narrative is triggered, the advance of the plot will lead to the birth of another ending.

4.2 The application of FPV of the game in the film
Some producers even make First-Person films, and from simple life-logs to playing sports, the content of FPVs varies dramatically (Reibman,2018). FPV is short for first person view. It’s the usual element of the game. In fact, FPV has become the mainstream game mode. The directors use the camera to simulate the subjective and objective perspectives. With the development of game, the concept of the view has been further extended. The FPV is recognized by a great deal of action gamers. Due to FPV, the background image is usually seen by the players through the eyes of the character they are, and then it can increase the credibility of setting of the game. For example, the popular game Counter-Strike (Appendix 5) uses FPV to achieve excellent results. Gradually, FPV is also used by a lot of directors. Once the subjective lens is to replace the human eye, it must conform to the human characteristics, that is to say, it is not only the viewing mode of the human eye, but also the movement mode of the human body. In most cases, the small camera is fixed on the actor’s head and follows the actor’s violent movement, the mechanical characteristics of the camera are exposed. Due to the lack of frame rate, as the camera moves rapidly, the picture will be very blurred. Although it has limitations, Directors use hand-held camera to simulate the DV effect of the film, its unique view has a high degree of simulation, will give the audiences a strong sense of immersion, so it is sought after by specific audience groups. The description of its benefits seems to be a little vague, and then it will be analyzed by some specific contemporary films as examples.
From a sociological point of view, District 9 (Appendix6), directed by Neill Blomkamp, explores a lot of realistic issues. Racial discrimination is its theme. Notwithstanding, in addition to addressing domestic issues District 9 also makes significant references to transnational concerns around human rights, military privatization and the War on Terror prominent in news reports at the time (Abu Dhabi,2019). In the film, some realistic problems are shown through the change of the hero’s attitude towards aliens. The spectator’s view does not allow the audiences to focus on and reflect on change. FPV is able to reach such a kind of result. It is inspired by district 6. In 1867, the district 6 of South Africa was officially named. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was a multi-ethnic area, where free slaves, businessmen, artists, laborers, immigrants, sailors from various countries who visited from time to time lived, and they are black, white, Christian, Hindu, Muslim. Different cultures were mixed and full of vitality. After 1901, it began to change. In the name of ethnic harmony, the so-called Department of community development under NP announced that the district 6 must be closed. Since then, the district 6 has been plagued for many years. As mentioned above, its theme is racial discrimination, so FPV can make the audiences experience it more vividly. At the beginning of the film, with FPV, the audiences can feel strong racial discrimination from the taunts and teasing of aliens by the hero. In an interview, the hero accidentally infected with the virus. Over time, his body organs gradually changed, and eventually he became an alien. In the process of transformation, the original narrow and selfish idea has been changed, and the audiences can also feel the disadvantages of racial discrimination, which is realized through FPV.
Drew Goddard’s Cloverfield (Appendix 7) also use FPV. In the era of monster science fiction films, most directors seem to be repeating the same monster formula. Cloverfield stands out from monster science fiction films in an innovative way. Before Jason Hawkins went to work in Japan, his brother Rob Hawkins and girlfriend lily held a farewell party for him, and his friend Hud was responsible for recording the party. Disaster came without warning, the statue of Liberty’s head flew to the street, and then the house shook violently. Then the escape began. Instead of traditional special effects and montage shots, the director chose DV to shoot the whole film. In the narrow angle of FPV, a fear of escape comes as scheduled. The director once said that people live in an era full of fear, so it’s really exciting to imagine some strange and huge creatures attacking human beings’ city. Moreover, he hoped that the film could let the audiences experience the fear of omnipresent injury in an entertaining and safe way. As a result, he succeeded. Its plot is also very sophisticated, almost every 5-10 minutes, there are different monster behaviors attacking human beings, which bring the audiences’ inner fear of the unknown to the extreme. To show a film with realistic pictures and stories, the audiences can’t do without eyes, which are cameras. DV shooting will shift the focus of shooting to the eyes behind the machine, breaking the confinement of the eyes subject to the machine. When the audiences are led into the plot, they will follow the DV lens to experience, and often forget that the real shot is on the camera behind the DV. Although there is no switching and artistic lens, such a well-organized production undoubtedly makes the distance between individuals and disasters closer and more real.

4.3 IP adaptation of games and films
Pokémon Detective Pikachu (Appendix 8) is a 2019 urban fantasy mystery film directed by Rob Letterman. Although the hero of this film has changed from a Japanese boy in the game to a Westerner, and the grandfather in the game has only occupied a small plot, people must admit that it is a successful game adaptation. Once the time goes back, Tomb Raider (Appendix 9) is the first film to be adapted successfully from the game. Famous actress Angelina Jolie played Lara Croft. At the same time, paramount spent $115 million to shoot around the world. The hot scenes guaranteed by the powerful production cost and the sexy Angelina’s perfect restoration of Lara made it achieve good box office results. In fact, it is not the first film adapted from a game. The first film adapted from the game was the Super Mario Bros (Appendix 10). It was released in 1993, adapted from the game of the same name on FC platform, with an investment of up to 48 million US dollars. Allied filmmakers, who spent a lot of money to buy the adaptation rights of Super Mario Bros, didn’t understand the game at all. They just looked at the Mario whirlwind that Nintendo had blown up in the United States at that time. It failed in the end. Its failure did not prevent people from adapting the game into a film, which also led to the success of Pokémon Detective Pikachu and Tomb Raider. To some extent, adaptation is the way in which the games and the films influence each other the most. A popular term “IP” will be involved.
With the coming of pan-entertainment era, the value of IP industry is being explored. IP consumer market is also expanding, which is actually a battlefield of cultural output. The strength of IP lies in that once it contacts the audience groups who have similar world outlook and values, it will quickly agglomerate and develop into a culture, which will continue to progress, develop and inherit. The famous game is a significant IP. Next, some data can be used to show why some people are keen to adapt game IP into film. The total value of the global video game industry is as high as 65 billion US dollars. Within 24 hours of the release of Microsoft’s Xbox One and Sony’s PlayStation 4 consoles in November 2013, over 1 million units of each were sold. Within 18 days, sales for each console hit the two million mark (David Greenspan,2014). The profit is so huge. Moreover, popular game IP also has a large number of fans. With the continuous evolution of the game, more and more fans of different kinds of games are in the world, and they are the main force of the films, which will spend their money on their ardent love. The IP of a famous game is the basic guarantee of box office. Instead of painstakingly writing a new film IP, it’s better to start with a famous game directly, which can greatly reduce the workload, and also get better results in the publicity. These reasons can explain why a large number of filmmakers want to adapt a popular game IP into a film. It should be noted that it is not easy to adapt a popular IP game into a popular film. There are some factors that need to be noticed.
Resident Evil (Appendix11), Silent Hill (Appendix12), Far Cry (Appendix13), Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time (Appendix14), Hitman (Appendix15), they are films adapted by famous game IP. It takes a lot of effort for filmmakers to adapt a popular IP game into a film with good box office.
In fact, only a few games can be adapted into films. Many educational and competitive games are not suitable for big screen. Most of the existing game-films come from the role-playing games with large background, many characters and complex plot. There are a lot of obstacles to adapt from a game to a film, such as the consistency and breakthrough of plot, the continuity and difference of style, the assumption and authenticity of characters. For example, it should not only avoid the boredom of “watching others play games” brought to the audience by the highly restored Final Fantasy (Appendix16), but also avoid the simple application of image symbols of the game like Angry Birds (Appendix17). What’s more, in the process of adaptation, how can filmmakers fully respect the sense of participation of the players and release the imagination of the audiences? Games and films mobilize different thinking. People get pleasure through games and films in different ways. Game form is open, dynamic, connected, immersed and nonlinear, while film is closed, static, isolated, onlooking and linear. For the game players, looking for maps, doing tasks, socializing with other players, and feeling their own growth are the charm of a game, which obviously cannot be achieved by a film. In the process of changing from a game to a film, the editor restricts the players’ exploration. The camera replaces the mouse in the hand, and the actor acts as the hero of the game. In addition, the third person view replaces the original first-person view, and deprives the players of their subjectivity. In fact, IP film, fan film, pan-entertainment and other hot terms can’t make a movie succeed naturally. IP adaptation has quite positive significance in media integration, industrial integration and cultural integration, but the success of a film can only complies with the law of a film itself.
To adapt the game IP into a quality film, the filmmakers should focus on the creation of content rather than the imitation of form. Steven Allan Spielberg is a good player and filmmaker. His film Ready Player One (Appendix18) is so impressed. Its story is very attractive. Oasis’s game designer lost his love and friendship due to social barriers and poor communication. He didn’t realize the value of the real-life world until he died. The film’s hero came to oasis to escape from reality, but he found something far more important than himself in the process of looking for the eggs. Finally, he made real friends and found true love. The success of virtual world still cannot solve the frustration and loneliness in real life. Steven Allan Spielberg’s exposure and Reflection on the two sides of VR is one of the reasons for the success of such a film adapted from the game.
Nowadays, the game is gradually developing towards cinematic narration, and it has more and more various elements of film. With the game mechanism, its entertainment has far exceeded the form of film. The game is a complex medium, which has entered into the public daily range, so the craze to adapt a game into a film is still popular.

4.4 The use of game effects in films
With the help of game effect, a film can break through its original boundary. The effect of using the game in the film is simply from the shooting technique. For example, Joe Cox and Daniel Kaimann’s argument “Because of high development costs and uncertain market demand, it is vitally important for video game developers and publishers to be able to forecast product sales efficiently, in particular those of new products at the beginning of their life cycles” is not included (2015). It does not involve complex business operations and humanistic reflection.
To begin with, a film’s imitation of a game effect is the use of sound. On the one hand, the sound effect strengthens recognition. On the other hand, it can prompt players to operate and indicate the process of the game. As playing video games, the sound effect appears, the players become the decision-makers who decide whether to find the source. They can choose to find it or ignore it. Such a difference highlights the indicative role of sound effect in the game. In order to make the players have a deep sense of immersion and interactive experience, game designers need to make good use of sound effect to indicate where the players need to pay attention to and what events can promote the game process. For example, when a character operated by a player enters a multi fork intersection, the choice of the branch road is randomly determined by the player. In the case of completely letting players make decisions, it may take a lot of time to make detours, and some impatient players are likely to choose to give up. If the number of detours is reduced, and the players only walk along the set route mechanically, the game process will be monotonous. Therefore, the game designer can use some kind of sound effect (such as the sound of enemies moving around, the sound of teammates greeting) to prompt a general direction which is the most attractive to the player. Under normal circumstances, the player will choose this route, make a so-called “own choice” unconsciously, and bring a sense of achievement because of “the right choice made by himself or herself”. Sound effect has become one of the necessary elements for players to successfully complete the game. When watching a film, the sound effect can indicate the appearance of a character or the occurrence of an event, or it can only convey certain information to the audiences, which is decided by the director. A detailed interpretation of it can be obtained through specific films. God of Gamblers (Appendix 19) is a good example. Gao Jin is a world-famous gambling king. He accepted the invitation of a Japanese gang friend and dueled with Chen Jincheng, also known as the gambling king of Singapore, on the card table. Before the duel, he accidentally stepped into a trap and fell down the hillside to become amnesia. Gao Jin lost his memory and lived in the house of Knife boy, a hooligan. His girlfriend Jane took good care of him. Knife boy has benefited and suffered from amnesiac Gao Jin’s high-level gambling. e, Gao Jin’s cousin Gao Yi was drunk and broke into Gao Jin’s girlfriend Janet’s room. He had evil ideas about her, but he accidentally killed Janet, burned the tape and sent someone to kill Gao Jin. Fortunately, the bodyguard Long Wu saved him. He recovered his memory when he was hit by a car in the escape. So, he chose to go to the gambling boat to fight. With the classic sound effects (Appendix20), his presence has impressed a generation.
Secondly, the combination of live action and game animation effect is also a technical innovation. Garfield, is a good example (Appendix21). Garfield was born on June 19, 1978. His name is from James Abram Garfield, the 20th president of the United States. He is an orange fat cat that eats human food. Garfield is a fictional character. However, with the development of technology, it can also appear in live action films. Sin city (Appendix22) is also a typical example. It’s made up of three stories, all in the virtual city of sin, where the police and the thugs are no different. Violence destroys everything and protects everything. In the three stories, most of the pictures are from the game. Marv, who was ugly and hot tempered, met Gail, a blonde, and a one-night stand gave Marv the warmth he never had (Appendix23). However, when he woke up, he found Gail lying next to him murdered. His heart was kindled by the flames of anger and revenge, vowing to investigate the truth and find the murderer who killed his love (Appendix24). Dwight McCarthy used to be a criminal. After plastic surgery, he became a boyfriend of the bartender Shellie, and taught her a lesson about her tangled ex-boyfriend, Jackie boy, who was violent. Dwight McCarthy followed Jackie boy and his gang to the old town ruled by the prostitute gang. Jackie boy did not follow the rules and was killed by prostitutes. Then they found that Jackie boy was a policeman. His death broke the agreement between prostitutes and the police. Dwight McCarthy has to help them cover up their crimes and protect their rights (Appendix25). Hartigan is retiring due to a heart attack. In the last hour of his police career, he received intelligence that Senator’s son Roark Jr. kidnapped 11-year-old Nancy, who was the main suspect in several rapes. Hartigan rescued Nancy by himself, abandoned Roark Jr. and was seriously injured (Appendix26). For the next eight years, Roger’s father, a senator, used his power to keep him in jail (Appendix27). The plot continues. The film is full of blood, darkness and even dismemberment. Because some of the directors’ ultimate ideas cannot be realized by realistic means, only through caricature can they achieve the ideal effect.
With the filmmakers becoming more and more picky about the shooting methods of films, learning from games has become a breakthrough way. Through the introduction of some special game effects, a film becomes more attractive and can provide better audio-visual experience for the audience. That is to say, some feelings that could not be visualized have changed, which will make the audiences have a more intuitive contact with the content of a film, thus producing resonance.

4.5Interactive film modeled on the game settings
Interactive film is a type of game, which is characterized by similar film and focuses on screenwriting (Pomerance,2016). Usually, such a kind of game will use the animation made by live action capture or live action films to represent the game content. Interactivity is the most distinctive feature of games, which is reflected in the development of the audiences’ participation in the plot of the film. Interactive film is still in its infancy. Games have become the main reference for interactive films, and it also provide positive enlightenment for the improvement of the structure mode and viewing mode of contemporary films. At present, it is a very new type of game with a lot of disadvantages. To begin with, the current interactive film is mainly concentrated in the genre of suspense. In fact, there are a lot of types worth and suitable for developing interactive film. For example, people can use the subjective view to shoot love interactive games or adventure games which could guide players to a totally new world. Moreover, its logic is not strong enough, resulting in inferior viewing experience. While surprisingly in this way of production, people have also found that the creative power of content is limited. Most interactive films have logical shortcomings due to cost issues and difficulty in production. The narrative technique of traditional film is difficult to implement under too many branches, which is very challenging for the creator. As a result, the pre-production of these interactive films is very difficult. The script has to be repeatedly scrutinized, and the camera shots need to be fabulous, which will raise the cost and increase the difficulty of profit. For the interactive film, the branch of the plot is indispensable, so the cost of shooting the interactive film may be several times that of the traditional film. It is undoubtedly a major pressure for the later broadcast and marketing. Nevertheless, the popularity of interactive films continues.
Black Mirror: Bandersnatch (Appendix28) is a good example. In 2018, Netflix released Black Mirror: Bandersnatch, an interactive “choose your own adventure” film. As soon as it was released, fans began to interpret its narrative branches, analyze its symbolism, and look for its Easter eggs. The audience must watch the episode step by step online on Netflix without offline download or progress bar. In the process of watching, two options will pop up on the screen at any time to let the audiences decide the next action of the hero, and the choice of each step will affect the different development of the story. Just like many films will have multiple ending versions, it has also made several more versions of the plot, which is an interactive way for the audiences to choose the plot during the watching process. In 1984, Stefan, a programmer who lost his mother when he was young, wanted to develop a game adapted from the novel Bandersnatch. It is also interactive. Players only need to choose one from the other all the time to make the game develop. His idea won the recognition of the game company, and the boss asked Stefan to make the game. But in the process of writing the game, Stefan gradually fell into the illusion of struggling with his mother’s tragic past and blaming his father. Because he hid Stefan’s dolls, his mother missed one train and got on the next derailed train. What’s more, Stefan was seriously influenced by the novel and fell into the same skepticism as the novelist. In fact, the choice of the audiences is very important for the fate of the hero. The audience almost had to choose from the beginning. It was up to Stefan to decide which brand of cereal to eat for breakfast and which tape to listen to on the bus. With the continuous selection, the plot began to change significantly. What matters is not the ending, but what drives Stefan crazy. Interactive film can let the audience choose a character to follow up, which is to let them and the characters get the synchronous feeling. At the beginning, an audience replaced himself or herself with Stefan, a programmer, who constantly chose different options, tried to escape the illusion and try to find the truth. But gradually, he realized that he was under the control of others, and that person was a random audience in front of the screen. That is to say, the “devil” of the story is not the father, the psychologist, the so-called government conspiracy, but the audiences.
There are two aspects to evaluate the plot of an interactive films, one is the plot, the other is the choice of players. Whether the plot is complete, whether the branches are rich, and how much they touch the players’ emotions are very important. Even if it just recreates the classic films, the experience brought by the game to the audience is always unique. Only in the game can the audiences really have the opportunity to try to become the person in the play, to stand in the position of “he” or “she” to influence the development of the story and change the fate of “oneself”, rather than a spectator outside the play. So, whether it’s Black Mirror: Bandersnatch or any other similar works, it’s absolutely not advisable to treat them only by “watching”, which is tantamount to denying the fundamental value of interactive films.

5. Conclusion

Films and games are highly dependent on technology, have strong momentum of development, and have commonalities in art forms, production methods, entertainment hotspots and other aspects, but they also have great complementarities. These similarities and complementarities provide a solid foundation for their industrial cooperation. Nowadays, they have become the favorite form of entertainment for young people. Although decisive words can cause misunderstanding in an academic paper, there is no doubt that games and films have influenced and integrated each other.
In this paper, the five main methods about the interaction between games and films mark that their boundaries are gradually crossed. In the early stage of film development, its narrative is linear, that is to say, it abides by the rules. In fact, the films also need to learn from the non-linear narrative structure in the games because the traditional linear narrative structure has reached its ceiling. Narrative structure is often used as a skeleton to support the overall framework of the games. The non-linear narrative structure can not only promote each other’s play, but also control the players’ emotions and strengthen the immersion of the games. Similarly, it can achieve the same effect in the film. Secondly, no matter in the games or in the films, FPV can make the players or the audience have a strong sense of substitution. On the other hand, films made from the FPV are easy to annoy the audiences, because they think that the shaking camera caused their vertigo. Thirdly, in the process of game and movie integration, IP adaptation is the most familiar way. Nowadays, more and more game companies are no longer relying on games to make profits, but to develop large-scale IP based on a well-known game, and to develop film forms under this IP. A large number of game IP has been adapted into films, but there are few successful examples. To a certain extent, although IP has the favor of capital and a large number of fans, the careless treatment will not make IP obtain huge economic benefits. Moreover, the sound effect and animation in the games can be used for reference by the films to update the shooting techniques. Finally, interactive film is the most popular way to blend the two. Its disadvantages are the most. It’s very difficult to write interactive films. In addition, it’s not conducive to the growth of interactive films without a certain profit model. However, it can continue to be improved as the latest extension mode of games and films integration. At the same time, other ways are not without disadvantages. When games and films have reached a certain stage, their integration and future promotion are necessary and need to be taken into consideration.
For example, in the initial stage of IP development, relevant personnel need to consider how to develop films and how to design games. While ensuring the IP characteristics, relevant personnel would better find some combination points and extend each other. In marketing, relevant personnel can even consider to let users participate in, according to the needs of users, constantly improve the film plot and game content, so as to better meet the needs of the public. Besides, in marketing and promotion, the game industry and film industry should cooperate with each other to jointly improve the public’s attention to IP. Generally speaking, there are two ways to improve these conditions. The first way is to find a better profit model. Secondly, content is the key to success. These approaches can also be used to improve other conditions. The deep integration of film and game is the general trend of pan-entertainment industry in the future. Under this trend, new forms of film and game are likely to appear in the future. Two industries are entering a more mature period of in-depth transformation. Many companies, from the game business, film business, IP reserves, industrial chain resources, integration capabilities and other aspects have a stronger strength and excellent collaborative interaction ability. It can be predicted that as the driving force of the collision between film and game, the integration of the two will stimulate the emerging cultural industry to usher in the market explosion again.

6.Bibliographies

Adrienne Shaw.2010. What Is Video Game Culture? Cultural Studies and Game Studies. Games and Culture, Vol 5, Issue 4.
Amy Watson.2019.Global box office revenue from 2005 to 2018,viewed November 2, 2019, https://www.statista.com/statistics/271856/global-box-office-revenue/
Abu Dhabi.2019. Capitalism with a Human Face: Neoliberal Ideology in Neill Blomkamp’s District 9. Film-Philosophy,23.1, pp.1–16.
Bordwell, D. and Thompson, K. 2013. Film Art: An Introduction, 10th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill
Christina Gough.2018.Value of the global video games market 2012-2021,viewed November 2, 2019, https://www.statista.com/statistics/246888/value-of-the-global-video-game-market/
Cohendet, R., Matthieu Perreira, D.S., Gilet, A. & Callet, P.L. 2017, “Emotional interactive movie: adjusting the scenario according to the emotional response of the viewer”, EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies, vol. 4, no. 10.
Consumer & Entertainment Services.2018.Video Games Revenue Forecast: 2018–2023,viewed November 2, 2019, https://ovum.informa.com/resources/product-content/video-games-revenue-forecast-201823
David Greenspan.2014.Video Games and IP: A Global Perspective, viewed November 2, 2019, https://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2014/02/article_0002.html
David Sorfa. 2016. What is Film-Philosophy? Film-Philosophy, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp.1466-4615.
Emanuela Marchetti, Andrea Valente. 2015. What happened to non-linear narrative? A pedagogical reflection. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.
Fukuta, J. & Morgan, J. 2018, “First-person perspective video to enhance simulation”, The Clinical Teacher, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 231-235.
Hadrien Salat, Roberto Murcio, Elsa Arcaute. 2017. Multifractal methodology. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Volume 473, 1, pp.467-487.
Heinrich S. Domingo. 2017. Archiving Asia Through Films.APP.Volume9, Issue3, pp.519-521.
Jia Li, Ed White. 2017. The game is on: protecting IP in video games. Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal.
James E. Cutting. 2016. Narrative theory and the dynamics of popular movies. PB&R, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 1713-1743.
Jehoshua Eliashberg, Thorsten Hennig-Thurau, Charles B. Weinberg, Berend Wierenga. 2016. Of video games, music, movies, and celebrities. International Journal of Research in Marketing, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp.241-245.
Margaret Kartomi. 2014. Concepts, Terminology and Methodology in Music Performativity Research. Musicology Australia, Volume 36, Issue 2: Music Performance and Performativity, pp189-208.
Ma, B. & Reibman, A.R. 2018, “Viewing Experience Model of First-Person Videos”, Journal of Imaging, vol. 4, no. 9.
Pañeda, X.G., Garcia, R., Lobo, P.G., Cabrero, S., Melendi, D. & Arciniegas, J.L. 2015, “Multimedia content distribution of an online Social TV game over IP-based networks”, Telecommunication Systems, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 345-356.
Neil Cohn. 2016. Narrative conjunction’s junction function: The interface of narrative grammar and semantics in sequential images. Journal of Pragmatics, Volume 88, pp.105-132.
Okkinara, E., Kilteni, K., Blom, K.J. & Slater, M. 2016, “First Person Perspective of Seated Participants Over a Walking Virtual Body Leads to Illusory Agency Over the Walking”, Scientific Reports (Nature Publisher Group), vol. 6, pp. 28879.
Paaßen, B., Morgenroth, T. & Stratemeyer, M. 2017, “What is a True Gamer? The Male Gamer Stereotype and the Marginalization of Women in Video Game Culture”, Sex Roles, vol. 76, no. 7-8, pp. 421-435.
Pomerance, M., Barton Palmer, R. (eds) 2016.Thinking in the Dark. Cinema, Theory, Practice: Rutgers UP, New Brunswick.
Rohrbach, A., Torabi, A., Rohrbach, M., Tandon, N., Pal, C., Larochelle, H., Courville, A. & Schiele, B. 2017, “Movie Description”, International Journal of Computer Vision, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 94-120.
Rochelle Cade, Jasper Gates. 2017. Gamers and Video Game Culture: An Introduction for Counselors. The Family Journal, Vol 25, Issue 1.
Selen, E. 2015, “Cybernetic narrative”, Kybernetes, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1380-1387.
Solum, L.B. 2017, “Originalist Methodology”, The University of Chicago Law Review, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 269-295.
Sung-Joo Lim, Julie A. Fiez, Lori L. Holta. 2019. Role of the striatum in incidental learning of sound categories. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
Stephanie Bramley, Sally M. Gainsbury. 2015. The Role of Auditory Features Within Slot-Themed Social Casino Games and Online Slot Machine Games. Journal of Gambling Studies, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp. 1735–1751.
Xinhua.2017.Global box office hits record $38.6 billion in 2016: movie lobby group, viewed November 2, 2019, http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-03/23/c_136151270.htm
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7.Filmographies
Black Mirror: Bandersnatch, David Slade,2018
Cloverfield, Drew Goddard,2008
Garfield, Peter Hewitt,2004
District 9, Neill Blomkamp,2009
Detroit: Become Human, David Cage,2018
Far Cry, Uwe Boll,2008.
God of Gamblers, Jing Wong,1989
Hitman, Among Friends,2007
Inception, Christopher Nolan,2010
Kung Fu, Stephen Chow,2004
Memento, Christopher Nolan ,2000
Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time, Mike Newell,2010
Pokémon Detective Pikachu, Rob Letterman,2019
Run Lola Run, Tom Tykwer,1988
Resident Evil, Paul Anderson,2002
Ready Player One, Steven Allan Spielberg,2018
Super Mario Bros, Annabel Jankel, Rocky Morton,1993
Silent Hill, Christophe Gans,2006.
Sin City, Robert Rodriguez, Frank Miller, Quentin Tarantino,2005
Tomb Raider, Simon West,2001
Warcraft, Duncan Jones,2016.

8.Appendices

Interview A
Interviewer: Good morning, may I have a simple interview with you?
Interviewee A: Of course, I’m very interested. What is it about?
Interviewer: The topic of the interview is about video games and films. What’s your first impression of them?
Interviewee A: Recently, I just watched Gemini Man starring Willard Christopher Smith Jr. It’s wonderful. Can you imagine a 51-year-old killer meeting a 21-year-old? It is the innovation of film technology. In addition, among our small groups, Tencent’s PUBG is a shooting game that we all pay attention to, similar to CS, but it is more exciting. In the game, players need to collect all kinds of resources on the game map, and confront other players in the shrinking security area, so that they can survive to the end.
Interviewer: Wow, you’re addicted to it. What factors do you think make you interested in it? You know, PUBG.
Interviewee A: Its first-person view can allow you to experience immersively. Moreover, its sound effect is really great. Lots of weapons to choose from, AK47, bombs, knives, etc. You can become teammates with real friends or strangers from other regions to fight against other players. I’m really fascinated by it.
Interviewer: It seems that you are familiar with both films and games. Do you know that they have started to influence each other?
Interviewee A: It seems so. To be honest, I’m a bit vague. Can I give you a hint?
Interviewer: Do you know Pokémon Detective Pikachu? It’s a film adapted from the game.
Interviewee A: Oh, it reminds me of many classic Nintendo games, Super Mario Bros, Contra and so on. I don’t know if they are also adapted into film. I need to search.
Interviewer: In fact, there are, but some have succeeded and some have failed. As the old saying goes, everything has two sides.
Interviewee A: It suddenly occurred to me that they really influenced each other. That is, they are all in the same lucrative business. In my impression, the profits unit of the game industry and the film industry are all base on a hundred million.
Interviewer: It’s true that they can all make huge economic profits, so the others, you know?
Interviewee A: I think I should go back to find the relevant information.
Interviewer: Thank you so much for your interview.
Interviewee A: You’re welcome!

Interview B
Interviewer: Nice to meet you!
Interviewee B: Nice to meet you, too!
Interviewer: You seem to be very knowledgeable, because you are wearing glasses, maybe you will be familiar with the topic of my interview. My interview topic is whether you know the blending of games and movies.
Interviewee B: It’s a very common phenomenon. Now, most of the popular films draw on the elements of the game. Many famous game IP is adapted into movies as a way, such as Warcraft. It is the Bible of generations, that is to say, it has a large number of fans, so its box office has also been a basic guarantee, which is the source of director’s confidence. In addition, I’ve been focusing on an American play, which is also a very famous game. Now it’s played as an interactive film, Black Mirror: Bandersnatch. You know, it really suits me. I’ve always been a puzzle fan and a veteran mystery fan. In fact, I just heard that I haven’t experienced it myself.
Interviewer: It seems that you fully agree that the integration of the two has become an unchangeable trend.
Interviewee B: Undoubtedly! They also have to be integrated. There are too many ways of entertainment for modern people, which requires innovation in the game and film industry. The demand of the market and the attention of the capital make them take a wise way to influence each other.
Interviewer: My first impression is not wrong. You are very knowledgeable indeed.
Interviewee B: You are flattering me. I just analyze video games and films from my daily experience, not like scholars who specialize in them. Strictly speaking, my understanding of the specific situation of their integration is not very comprehensive.
Interviewer: I think you know a lot.
Interviewee B: It’s nice talking with you, but I’m still busy. I’m afraid it’s over.
Interviewer: OK, thank you sincerely!
Interviewee B: Have a great time. Goodbye!

Interview C
Interviewer: Hello, nice day!
Interviewee C: As long as you keep in a good mood, the weather will always be good. Are you going to interview me? Tell me, what’s the theme?
Interviewer: Video games and films.
Interviewee C: Very familiar topic, look at me, typical video game fans and film fans. Do you want to ask what are the most impressive video games and movies? That’s too much to say for a while.
Interviewer: I’m happy to listen, and I want you to talk about which ways they influence each other.
Interviewee C: I can talk a lot about the first half. I’m afraid I don’t know much about the second half, because it’s a little academic
Interviewer: The last interviewer told me that it is a common phenomenon.
Interviewee C: I don’t know much about it, but I remember a film. It’s a film directed by Stephen Chow, Kung Fu. In the film, some exaggerated plots may be based on game factors, such as the chase scene between the hero and the landlady. The running hero’s legs are the same as the wheel. In addition, the compact sound effect is the same as the cue in the game.
Interviewer: Look, you know a lot.
Interviewee C: I just say what I think, and I don’t know anything else.
Interviewer: OK, you seem to be going out to play.
Interviewee C: Yes, I’m afraid our conversation is coming to an end.
Interviewer: Enjoy yourself!
Interviewee C: Thanks!

文学电影论文代写 What are the key ways that film and game into related in contemporary movie image culture?

What are the key ways that film and game into related in contemporary movie image culture?

Student ID:xxxx
MA FILM
Supervisor:xxxx
Due:7 November 2019

Table of Contents
1.Introduction 3
2.Methodology 4
3.Literature Review 6
4. Substantive chapters 7
4.1 Non-linear narrative and open ending 7
4.2 The application of FPV of the game in the film 9
4.3 IP adaptation of games and films 10
4.4 The use of game effects in films 12
4.5Interactive film modeled on the game settings 14
5. Conclusion 16
6.Bibliographies 17
7.Filmographies 19
8.Appendices 19


1.Introduction

As one of the most important mass media, film has gone through more than 100 years since it appeared in the late 19th century. Film is closely related to people’s life. People’s thoughts, behaviors and consciousness are influenced by it imperceptibly, and at the same time, they accept the unprecedented aesthetic and cultural experience brought by it. The Games in this paper refer to video games, and the following are simplified as games. Game was formally born in the 1950s, and gradually accepted by people. Game has become the basis of an important entertainment industry in Japan, the United States and Europe in the late 1970s.Game is a new product after decades of film development. However, in a very short time, it quickly mixes with film magically and creates unexpected effects. In fact, the economic value of both is amazing. According to MPAA’s reliable data sources, the global box office in 2016 was very prosperous, breaking last year’s record, increasing by 1%, with a total amount of US $38.6 billion (Xinhua,2017). By 2017, the total amount of global film box office reached 40.6 billion US dollars, an increase of 5% over the previous year. In 2018, global box office revenue amounted to 41.1 billion U.S. dollars, marking an increase from the previous year (Amy Watson,2019). At present, the world’s game giants are Sony Computer Entertainment and Nintendo in Japan, Microsoft in the United States and Tencent in China. In 2018, the market was expected to be worth approximately 115 billion U.S. dollars and the source projects the industry revenues to surpass 138 billion by 2021 (Christina Gough,2018). Global video games revenue will reach $210bn by 2023, with mobile gaming accounting for the majority of revenue (Consumer & Entertainment Services,2018). The huge economic value makes the integration of games and films develop rapidly. Academic interest coincides with the rise of digitalization and the accompanying business models and data (Jehoshua Eliashberg, etc. 2016). Since the trend of game and film integration has been irreversible, the following methodology, literature review and substantive chapters will focus on such a theme.
Ingeniously, the methodology and the theme of this paper correspond to each other. Generally speaking, methodology is the research guidance of a paper. After it has been carefully constructed, the next parts will proceed step by step, that is to say, the process is linear. Although a large number of literature materials and some well-prepared interviews have been carried out in advance, they have been proved to be not able to support the smooth development of the paper in the process of writing, but only an inspiration. To some extent, the methodology of this paper is nonlinear. At the beginning, the preparation of literature and interview are two obvious methods. However, in the process of writing, some new and better ideas appeared, and the old ideas were rejected. New ideas are like new props that are accidentally harvested in the game. Once triggered, a new plot will be born. The starting point of this paper comes from experience. Through experience, a large number of original materials are accumulated. In the next step, these materials will be observed, that is, recollection, thinking, reflection, integration, from which valuable gains and experiences will be abstracted. Finally, several key points related to the theme are extracted and form the system of this paper.
The collection and selection of literature review will be divided into three parts. To clarify the concept of film and game is the work of the first preparation stage of the literature. The game and the film develop respectively, and then at a specific node, their lines cross. That is to say, the preparation of literatures about the origin and development history of the two is not separate, but trying to find their similarities. Through the literature, people can know that the blending of games and films is certain. The next step in literature preparation will focus on how they interact with each other. In the second stage, the purpose of literature preparation is to get enlightenment and verification in the previous scholars’ research, and then extract unique views through independent thinking. It is worth noting that the time dimension of literature is very critical, almost all of which will be selected within 5 years. In addition, some original reading books will be partially used. After all, the information in the digital age is updated very quickly, and some views have been outdated or even proved unreasonable.
Next is the main part of this paper, which will be divided into five chapters to elaborate, corresponding to each game and film interaction method. First of all, the non-linear narrative and open ending of the game will affect the formation of the film. Moreover, the FPV of the game has also become an innovative means of film shooting. Thirdly, the game and film IP adaptation, which is the most common way to affect each other. The fourth is the use of game effects in films. Finally, interactive films modeled on the game settings. In each part, the corresponding films and games will be used as specific cases to present the theme more intuitively. Besides, through the presentation of the phenomenon, some reflections will follow.
At present, although people are very familiar with games and films, they always treat them as separate concepts. However, more and more established facts have proved their mutual influence and integration. The problem is that people do not systematically understand the integration of the two, their understanding is fragmented. Through the in-depth study of this paper, such a trend will be presented, and the internal logic and driving force of their mutual influence and integration will also be exposed. In fact, the ways in which the games and films in this paper interact and blend with each other are not completely summarized, but the most widely accepted methods. In the process of the integration of the two, there are also a lot of obstacles that need to be overcome and improved. For such a problem, some suggestive future prospects will also be mentioned at the end of this paper.

2.Methodology

Games and films are very familiar areas of daily life, and then when it comes to how they affect each other, people immediately become hesitant. Adrienne Shaw claims that although there has been a great deal of ink spilt on the subject of video game culture, writers usually treat the actual definition of the term as common sense (2010). It is a very common phenomenon, namely, people are vague about the nature of things they are familiar with. In the research of this paper, some basic methods and upgrade methods are used. They can be seen as a process from how to reach the theme, analyzing the theme to understanding the theme at the end. With the deepening of the steps, the essence of the theme of this paper is also shown correspondingly.
Relevant literature collection and interview are the basic methods. Through the investigation of literature to obtain relevant information, people can comprehensively and correctly grasp some key information of relevant the theme. There are various channels to collect and research literature, and the types of literature are different, and the channels to collect and research literature are also different. Most of the materials in this paper are found in the online library. In addition, the methodology of each field is different. Hadrien Salat et al claim that multiple methodologies can be used in resistive network models (2017). Solum claims that in the field of constitution, original list methodology is very effective (2017). In the study of music performance, linguistic speech act theory is regarded as an effective methodology (Margaret Kartomi,2014). In other words, the methodology of each field is designed to the relevant discipline theory. The literature on the origin and development of games and films is the first stage of collection. Later, because games and films are mass media, some sociological, aesthetic and psychological literature will be consulted accordingly. After that, games and films are involved in business, so some economic phenomena and data will also be collected. The basic literature collection is divided into such several stages.
In this paper, the interview is very important. Compared with other methods, the interview method is conducive to understanding the thoughts and emotional reactions of the interviewees to the relevant topics, to understanding the life details of the interviewees, and to timely questioning some key issues. The reasonable and flexible use of the interview method will play a positive role in promoting the in-depth study of the theme. Generally speaking, the questions and answers of the questionnaire are subjective ideas of the designer, while the interview is a different situation. This paper will conduct in-depth interviews with three random subjects. In order to protect their privacy, their personal information will be hidden and replaced by interviewee A, B and C. All interview questions are random and not pre-arranged. It’s worth noting that they are all about games and films. The interview duration is basically 3-5 minutes.
Literature and interview are both in the initial stage, and their integration is the second stage. Some unnecessary literatures will be screened, and some core feasible views will be inspired and shaped from interviews. It can even be said that the framework of the main part of this paper is benefited from the content of the interviews to a large extent. In the process of writing this paper, there are often repeated modifications and adjustments, due to the running in of theory and practical experience. As a matter of fact, methodology is only used as a guidance in the early stage of writing a paper. In the process of writing, there will be many new problems, which need to be adjusted in time.

3.Literature Review

With the continuous integration of games and films, contemporary research on them is also increasing. Definition is the first idea studied by a lot of scholars. Heinrich S. Domingo claims that films concretize the seemingly ambiguous past by translating historical concepts into visual signs and auditory elements (2017). David Sorfa argues that all films are embroiled in an ethics that defines what we think of as morality (2016). As Rohrbach descripts the film, he claims that to generate a good description, one has to decide what part of the visual information to verbalize, i.e. recognize what is salient (2017). For the definition of film, scholars generally say that film is a modern art of vision and hearing, a comprehensive subject art, such as philosophy, and also a mass media. Rochelle Cade argues that advances in technology have pushed gaming from its early origins of simple, 2-D graphic games made for single players to games with increasing sophistication, realistic 3-D graphics, and relational and social elements inside and outside of the game (2017). Paaßen claims that games are a form of entertainment associated with sociology (2017). For the definition of video game, scholars generally say that it runs on an electronic device platform and interacts with players. From the scholars’ definition of the two, people can find the similarity in technology and culture. The similarity of the two has made them have the possibility of mutual influence and integration. Most scholars study from five dimensions.
Non-linear narrative is more used in games (Emanuela Marchetti,2015). In this article, Emanuela Marchetti mentions the opposite of non-linear narrative, that is, linear narrative has a long history and is invented by Aristotle. Besides, Emanuela Marchetti describes in detail that the game must adopt non-linear narrative in order to increase interest and suspense. In James E. Cutting’s article, linear narrative is called storytelling formula (2016). He claims that the linear narrative of the film is very old-fashioned, and it must be changed to attract the audiences’ attention. Neil Cohn claims that While simple visual narratives may depict characters engaged in events across sequential images, additional complexity appears when modulating the framing of that information within an image or film shot (2015). That is to say, whether in order to increase the visibility of the film or in terms of the shooting techniques in this article, non-linear narrative has appeared very frequently in the film.
FPV can provide players with immersive experience in the game (Okkinara,2016). He claims that in the past 10 years, the development of virtual technology based on computer technology has enabled design to be carried out from the FPV. In his article, Fukuta also detailed how the movie was filmed with the original game PFV (2018). FPV has created more possibilities for movies.
Scholars pay more attention to the economic profits created by game and film IP. Jia Li and Ed white claim that the IP value of video games is very large, so it is also very easy to be stolen and needs to be protected (2017). At the same time, he also describes the huge economic benefits brought by the movie adapted from the game, which prompted the attention of capital. Moreover, a large number of fans are also considered by him to be the key factor for the success of IP adaptation. Pañeda even builds a model to prove the huge amount of network access popular IP has (2015).
Some specific effects of the game have also attracted the attention of many scholars. Sounds in the game are considered functional (Sung-Joo Lim,2019). In this article, sound is set as a human skill, and when it is used in the game, it becomes a suggestive thing. Similarly, to gaming machines, video games employ speech, music and sound effects to structure a game, attract a player’s attention, focus players towards a certain aspect, and interact with the visual aspects of the game (Stephanie Bramley,2015). In this article, some other special effects are also introduced, such as animation.
Today there is a growing interest in human emotional reaction, which results in a number of studies constantly increasing (Cohendet,2017). In such a context, interactive films began to rise. With the maturity of technology, it has gradually changed from a conceptual type to an operational type of game. The purpose of the interaction is to enhance the audiences’ sense of participation, from the immersive viewing experience to the immersive decision-making experience. Yücelyigit points out that the rise of interactive film is on the one hand the maturity of technology, on the other hand, because the original industry has already touched the ceiling, so appropriate reform must be made (2016).
From the above literature, several points of information can be determined. Firstly, games and movies are similar and complementary. Secondly, the huge economic benefits enable people to promote their integration. Thirdly, the specific ways of their mutual influence can be divided into five dimensions to analyze.

4. Substantive chapters

In the main body of this paper, it will be divided into five chapters to interpret. In the next five chapters, the different ways in which games and films interact will be presented, and many contemporary films and games will be cited as examples.

4.1 Non-linear narrative and open ending
To begin with, the interaction between film and game lies in non-linear narrative and open ending. Stemming from the non-linear narrative elements in a new media artwork, the experience of each user and the reception of each work differ depending on the user’s choice to either reject or become immersed in the work (Selen,2015). Therefore, non-variable factors appear. Linear narrative is considered to be organized in strict accordance with the time dimension of reality, which has four parts, namely, beginning, development, climax and end. The non-linear narrative breaks the single line and orderly pattern of the linear narrative, and nonlinear single line narrative and nonlinear double line narrative all belong to its category (Bordwell,2013). Nonlinear narrative is an essential part of the game with different barriers. As a result, the ending of the films becomes open.
Most scholars in the West regard 1960 as a watershed. The generation born before that is called the “Literature generation”, and the generation born after that is called the “Audio-visual generation”. In the background of the former era, people mainly obtain knowledge and external information through characters. In the background of the latter era, with the rapid development and progress of science and technology, the popularity of television and computers is increasing. Tom Tykwer is the representative of the audio-visual generation (he was born in 1965), which has the game-film style Run Lola Run (Appendix 1). Its non-linear narrative and open ending draw on the elements of the game which has different result if a player pass different stage barriers, such as Dragon Quest (Appendix 2). In Run Lola Run, the expression of nonlinear double line narrative is theme repetition. In the case of repeated themes, there will be different open-ended film. Lola’s boyfriend, Manni, is a gangster. After an illegal transaction, Lola failed to pick him up in time. When he went to take the subway, he lost the 100000 mark he got from the illegal transaction. If twenty minutes later, he didn’t have the money to give to the gang leader, his life would be in trouble. Lola must get 100000 marks in 20 minutes in order to save her boyfriend. She could only keep running for every second, and the starting point of running is regarded as the beginning of the game. That is the theme of the film. It is the setting for Lola’s first run. She intended to borrow money from her father, but she didn’t expect her father to scold her and tell her that she was not her own father, and finally she couldn’t borrow money. The desperate Manni could only rob the supermarket, and Lola became an accomplice and was shot dead by the police. Then, the game restarted, and her second run started again. Lola could foresee ahead of time and avoid the events that delayed time, which led to the life to be different of passers-by she met, that is to say, the plot of the game changed. Her second run still failed to save her boyfriend. In the end, she robbed her father of enough money from the bank, but her boyfriend was killed by an ambulance. On the third run, she dodged all the obstacles on the road. In such a run, instead of robbing, she decided to gamble in the casino. In the end, she not only won 100000 marks, but also her boyfriend accidentally caught the homeless man who took the lost money bag and sent it to the gang leader.
Another example is Memento (Appendix 3). In 2000, the suspenseful thriller type film Memento directed by Christopher Nolan, a famous director, was officially released. The film has been sought after by a large number of fans for its fragmented narrative mode and reasoning sense of shooting. The film also won two nominations for best original script and best editing of the 74th Oscar Golden Statuettes. Leonard’s wife was killed by a ferocious gangster. Although he struggled back from the death line, Leonard got a strange “short-term memory loss” due to severe brain damage. From then on, he can only remember what happened a few minutes ago. Although in the eyes of the police, it’s just a common robbery case, Leonard’s life has been completely changed since then. Dissatisfied with the police’s rashness, Leonardo vowed to trace the murderer and avenge the tragic death of his beloved wife. It’s very similar to the setting of the game that the hero uses various clues to find out the truth.
Inception (Appendix 4) is another non-linear narrative structure, that is, play-within-a-play. Its charm lies in the fact that it uses different narrative techniques to influence the audiences’ psychology and achieve the goal of the director to set suspense. If the audience can take the real world in the film as a reference, they are: the real world, the first level dream, the second level dream, the third level dream, the fourth level dream and the lost domain. There are nine dreams in the six layers of the world, and the stories of reality and multiple dreams are unfolded at the same time. The task force led by Cobb will encounter obstacles brought by this layer of dreams every time they enter into a dream, so as to establish a relationship between the people who enter the next layer of dreams and the people who stay in the previous layer of dreams, and complicate the character connection and story. Such a setting is not only conducive to the multiple expansion of suspense, but also can skillfully control the narrative rhythm of each layer of dreams, and well control the psychological rhythm of the film. The characters travel back and forth in multiple time and space, which together constitute the classic science fiction film.
People can see that the game factor is used in the film. In the game of code programming, each code will touch a different plot. To some extent, the code is equivalent to the non-linear narrative in the film. As another different narrative is triggered, the advance of the plot will lead to the birth of another ending.

4.2 The application of FPV of the game in the film
Some producers even make First-Person films, and from simple life-logs to playing sports, the content of FPVs varies dramatically (Reibman,2018). FPV is short for first person view. It’s the usual element of the game. In fact, FPV has become the mainstream game mode. The directors use the camera to simulate the subjective and objective perspectives. With the development of game, the concept of the view has been further extended. The FPV is recognized by a great deal of action gamers. Due to FPV, the background image is usually seen by the players through the eyes of the character they are, and then it can increase the credibility of setting of the game. For example, the popular game Counter-Strike (Appendix 5) uses FPV to achieve excellent results. Gradually, FPV is also used by a lot of directors. Once the subjective lens is to replace the human eye, it must conform to the human characteristics, that is to say, it is not only the viewing mode of the human eye, but also the movement mode of the human body. In most cases, the small camera is fixed on the actor’s head and follows the actor’s violent movement, the mechanical characteristics of the camera are exposed. Due to the lack of frame rate, as the camera moves rapidly, the picture will be very blurred. Although it has limitations, Directors use hand-held camera to simulate the DV effect of the film, its unique view has a high degree of simulation, will give the audiences a strong sense of immersion, so it is sought after by specific audience groups. The description of its benefits seems to be a little vague, and then it will be analyzed by some specific contemporary films as examples.
From a sociological point of view, District 9 (Appendix6), directed by Neill Blomkamp, explores a lot of realistic issues. Racial discrimination is its theme. Notwithstanding, in addition to addressing domestic issues District 9 also makes significant references to transnational concerns around human rights, military privatization and the War on Terror prominent in news reports at the time (Abu Dhabi,2019). In the film, some realistic problems are shown through the change of the hero’s attitude towards aliens. The spectator’s view does not allow the audiences to focus on and reflect on change. FPV is able to reach such a kind of result. It is inspired by district 6. In 1867, the district 6 of South Africa was officially named. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was a multi-ethnic area, where free slaves, businessmen, artists, laborers, immigrants, sailors from various countries who visited from time to time lived, and they are black, white, Christian, Hindu, Muslim. Different cultures were mixed and full of vitality. After 1901, it began to change. In the name of ethnic harmony, the so-called Department of community development under NP announced that the district 6 must be closed. Since then, the district 6 has been plagued for many years. As mentioned above, its theme is racial discrimination, so FPV can make the audiences experience it more vividly. At the beginning of the film, with FPV, the audiences can feel strong racial discrimination from the taunts and teasing of aliens by the hero. In an interview, the hero accidentally infected with the virus. Over time, his body organs gradually changed, and eventually he became an alien. In the process of transformation, the original narrow and selfish idea has been changed, and the audiences can also feel the disadvantages of racial discrimination, which is realized through FPV.
Drew Goddard’s Cloverfield (Appendix 7) also use FPV. In the era of monster science fiction films, most directors seem to be repeating the same monster formula. Cloverfield stands out from monster science fiction films in an innovative way. Before Jason Hawkins went to work in Japan, his brother Rob Hawkins and girlfriend lily held a farewell party for him, and his friend Hud was responsible for recording the party. Disaster came without warning, the statue of Liberty’s head flew to the street, and then the house shook violently. Then the escape began. Instead of traditional special effects and montage shots, the director chose DV to shoot the whole film. In the narrow angle of FPV, a fear of escape comes as scheduled. The director once said that people live in an era full of fear, so it’s really exciting to imagine some strange and huge creatures attacking human beings’ city. Moreover, he hoped that the film could let the audiences experience the fear of omnipresent injury in an entertaining and safe way. As a result, he succeeded. Its plot is also very sophisticated, almost every 5-10 minutes, there are different monster behaviors attacking human beings, which bring the audiences’ inner fear of the unknown to the extreme. To show a film with realistic pictures and stories, the audiences can’t do without eyes, which are cameras. DV shooting will shift the focus of shooting to the eyes behind the machine, breaking the confinement of the eyes subject to the machine. When the audiences are led into the plot, they will follow the DV lens to experience, and often forget that the real shot is on the camera behind the DV. Although there is no switching and artistic lens, such a well-organized production undoubtedly makes the distance between individuals and disasters closer and more real.

4.3 IP adaptation of games and films
Pokémon Detective Pikachu (Appendix 8) is a 2019 urban fantasy mystery film directed by Rob Letterman. Although the hero of this film has changed from a Japanese boy in the game to a Westerner, and the grandfather in the game has only occupied a small plot, people must admit that it is a successful game adaptation. Once the time goes back, Tomb Raider (Appendix 9) is the first film to be adapted successfully from the game. Famous actress Angelina Jolie played Lara Croft. At the same time, paramount spent $115 million to shoot around the world. The hot scenes guaranteed by the powerful production cost and the sexy Angelina’s perfect restoration of Lara made it achieve good box office results. In fact, it is not the first film adapted from a game. The first film adapted from the game was the Super Mario Bros (Appendix 10). It was released in 1993, adapted from the game of the same name on FC platform, with an investment of up to 48 million US dollars. Allied filmmakers, who spent a lot of money to buy the adaptation rights of Super Mario Bros, didn’t understand the game at all. They just looked at the Mario whirlwind that Nintendo had blown up in the United States at that time. It failed in the end. Its failure did not prevent people from adapting the game into a film, which also led to the success of Pokémon Detective Pikachu and Tomb Raider. To some extent, adaptation is the way in which the games and the films influence each other the most. A popular term “IP” will be involved.
With the coming of pan-entertainment era, the value of IP industry is being explored. IP consumer market is also expanding, which is actually a battlefield of cultural output. The strength of IP lies in that once it contacts the audience groups who have similar world outlook and values, it will quickly agglomerate and develop into a culture, which will continue to progress, develop and inherit. The famous game is a significant IP. Next, some data can be used to show why some people are keen to adapt game IP into film. The total value of the global video game industry is as high as 65 billion US dollars. Within 24 hours of the release of Microsoft’s Xbox One and Sony’s PlayStation 4 consoles in November 2013, over 1 million units of each were sold. Within 18 days, sales for each console hit the two million mark (David Greenspan,2014). The profit is so huge. Moreover, popular game IP also has a large number of fans. With the continuous evolution of the game, more and more fans of different kinds of games are in the world, and they are the main force of the films, which will spend their money on their ardent love. The IP of a famous game is the basic guarantee of box office. Instead of painstakingly writing a new film IP, it’s better to start with a famous game directly, which can greatly reduce the workload, and also get better results in the publicity. These reasons can explain why a large number of filmmakers want to adapt a popular game IP into a film. It should be noted that it is not easy to adapt a popular IP game into a popular film. There are some factors that need to be noticed.
Resident Evil (Appendix11), Silent Hill (Appendix12), Far Cry (Appendix13), Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time (Appendix14), Hitman (Appendix15), they are films adapted by famous game IP. It takes a lot of effort for filmmakers to adapt a popular IP game into a film with good box office.
In fact, only a few games can be adapted into films. Many educational and competitive games are not suitable for big screen. Most of the existing game-films come from the role-playing games with large background, many characters and complex plot. There are a lot of obstacles to adapt from a game to a film, such as the consistency and breakthrough of plot, the continuity and difference of style, the assumption and authenticity of characters. For example, it should not only avoid the boredom of “watching others play games” brought to the audience by the highly restored Final Fantasy (Appendix16), but also avoid the simple application of image symbols of the game like Angry Birds (Appendix17). What’s more, in the process of adaptation, how can filmmakers fully respect the sense of participation of the players and release the imagination of the audiences? Games and films mobilize different thinking. People get pleasure through games and films in different ways. Game form is open, dynamic, connected, immersed and nonlinear, while film is closed, static, isolated, onlooking and linear. For the game players, looking for maps, doing tasks, socializing with other players, and feeling their own growth are the charm of a game, which obviously cannot be achieved by a film. In the process of changing from a game to a film, the editor restricts the players’ exploration. The camera replaces the mouse in the hand, and the actor acts as the hero of the game. In addition, the third person view replaces the original first-person view, and deprives the players of their subjectivity. In fact, IP film, fan film, pan-entertainment and other hot terms can’t make a movie succeed naturally. IP adaptation has quite positive significance in media integration, industrial integration and cultural integration, but the success of a film can only complies with the law of a film itself.
To adapt the game IP into a quality film, the filmmakers should focus on the creation of content rather than the imitation of form. Steven Allan Spielberg is a good player and filmmaker. His film Ready Player One (Appendix18) is so impressed. Its story is very attractive. Oasis’s game designer lost his love and friendship due to social barriers and poor communication. He didn’t realize the value of the real-life world until he died. The film’s hero came to oasis to escape from reality, but he found something far more important than himself in the process of looking for the eggs. Finally, he made real friends and found true love. The success of virtual world still cannot solve the frustration and loneliness in real life. Steven Allan Spielberg’s exposure and Reflection on the two sides of VR is one of the reasons for the success of such a film adapted from the game.
Nowadays, the game is gradually developing towards cinematic narration, and it has more and more various elements of film. With the game mechanism, its entertainment has far exceeded the form of film. The game is a complex medium, which has entered into the public daily range, so the craze to adapt a game into a film is still popular.

4.4 The use of game effects in films
With the help of game effect, a film can break through its original boundary. The effect of using the game in the film is simply from the shooting technique. For example, Joe Cox and Daniel Kaimann’s argument “Because of high development costs and uncertain market demand, it is vitally important for video game developers and publishers to be able to forecast product sales efficiently, in particular those of new products at the beginning of their life cycles” is not included (2015). It does not involve complex business operations and humanistic reflection.
To begin with, a film’s imitation of a game effect is the use of sound. On the one hand, the sound effect strengthens recognition. On the other hand, it can prompt players to operate and indicate the process of the game. As playing video games, the sound effect appears, the players become the decision-makers who decide whether to find the source. They can choose to find it or ignore it. Such a difference highlights the indicative role of sound effect in the game. In order to make the players have a deep sense of immersion and interactive experience, game designers need to make good use of sound effect to indicate where the players need to pay attention to and what events can promote the game process. For example, when a character operated by a player enters a multi fork intersection, the choice of the branch road is randomly determined by the player. In the case of completely letting players make decisions, it may take a lot of time to make detours, and some impatient players are likely to choose to give up. If the number of detours is reduced, and the players only walk along the set route mechanically, the game process will be monotonous. Therefore, the game designer can use some kind of sound effect (such as the sound of enemies moving around, the sound of teammates greeting) to prompt a general direction which is the most attractive to the player. Under normal circumstances, the player will choose this route, make a so-called “own choice” unconsciously, and bring a sense of achievement because of “the right choice made by himself or herself”. Sound effect has become one of the necessary elements for players to successfully complete the game. When watching a film, the sound effect can indicate the appearance of a character or the occurrence of an event, or it can only convey certain information to the audiences, which is decided by the director. A detailed interpretation of it can be obtained through specific films. God of Gamblers (Appendix 19) is a good example. Gao Jin is a world-famous gambling king. He accepted the invitation of a Japanese gang friend and dueled with Chen Jincheng, also known as the gambling king of Singapore, on the card table. Before the duel, he accidentally stepped into a trap and fell down the hillside to become amnesia. Gao Jin lost his memory and lived in the house of Knife boy, a hooligan. His girlfriend Jane took good care of him. Knife boy has benefited and suffered from amnesiac Gao Jin’s high-level gambling. e, Gao Jin’s cousin Gao Yi was drunk and broke into Gao Jin’s girlfriend Janet’s room. He had evil ideas about her, but he accidentally killed Janet, burned the tape and sent someone to kill Gao Jin. Fortunately, the bodyguard Long Wu saved him. He recovered his memory when he was hit by a car in the escape. So, he chose to go to the gambling boat to fight. With the classic sound effects (Appendix20), his presence has impressed a generation.
Secondly, the combination of live action and game animation effect is also a technical innovation. Garfield, is a good example (Appendix21). Garfield was born on June 19, 1978. His name is from James Abram Garfield, the 20th president of the United States. He is an orange fat cat that eats human food. Garfield is a fictional character. However, with the development of technology, it can also appear in live action films. Sin city (Appendix22) is also a typical example. It’s made up of three stories, all in the virtual city of sin, where the police and the thugs are no different. Violence destroys everything and protects everything. In the three stories, most of the pictures are from the game. Marv, who was ugly and hot tempered, met Gail, a blonde, and a one-night stand gave Marv the warmth he never had (Appendix23). However, when he woke up, he found Gail lying next to him murdered. His heart was kindled by the flames of anger and revenge, vowing to investigate the truth and find the murderer who killed his love (Appendix24). Dwight McCarthy used to be a criminal. After plastic surgery, he became a boyfriend of the bartender Shellie, and taught her a lesson about her tangled ex-boyfriend, Jackie boy, who was violent. Dwight McCarthy followed Jackie boy and his gang to the old town ruled by the prostitute gang. Jackie boy did not follow the rules and was killed by prostitutes. Then they found that Jackie boy was a policeman. His death broke the agreement between prostitutes and the police. Dwight McCarthy has to help them cover up their crimes and protect their rights (Appendix25). Hartigan is retiring due to a heart attack. In the last hour of his police career, he received intelligence that Senator’s son Roark Jr. kidnapped 11-year-old Nancy, who was the main suspect in several rapes. Hartigan rescued Nancy by himself, abandoned Roark Jr. and was seriously injured (Appendix26). For the next eight years, Roger’s father, a senator, used his power to keep him in jail (Appendix27). The plot continues. The film is full of blood, darkness and even dismemberment. Because some of the directors’ ultimate ideas cannot be realized by realistic means, only through caricature can they achieve the ideal effect.
With the filmmakers becoming more and more picky about the shooting methods of films, learning from games has become a breakthrough way. Through the introduction of some special game effects, a film becomes more attractive and can provide better audio-visual experience for the audience. That is to say, some feelings that could not be visualized have changed, which will make the audiences have a more intuitive contact with the content of a film, thus producing resonance.

4.5Interactive film modeled on the game settings
Interactive film is a type of game, which is characterized by similar film and focuses on screenwriting (Pomerance,2016). Usually, such a kind of game will use the animation made by live action capture or live action films to represent the game content. Interactivity is the most distinctive feature of games, which is reflected in the development of the audiences’ participation in the plot of the film. Interactive film is still in its infancy. Games have become the main reference for interactive films, and it also provide positive enlightenment for the improvement of the structure mode and viewing mode of contemporary films. At present, it is a very new type of game with a lot of disadvantages. To begin with, the current interactive film is mainly concentrated in the genre of suspense. In fact, there are a lot of types worth and suitable for developing interactive film. For example, people can use the subjective view to shoot love interactive games or adventure games which could guide players to a totally new world. Moreover, its logic is not strong enough, resulting in inferior viewing experience. While surprisingly in this way of production, people have also found that the creative power of content is limited. Most interactive films have logical shortcomings due to cost issues and difficulty in production. The narrative technique of traditional film is difficult to implement under too many branches, which is very challenging for the creator. As a result, the pre-production of these interactive films is very difficult. The script has to be repeatedly scrutinized, and the camera shots need to be fabulous, which will raise the cost and increase the difficulty of profit. For the interactive film, the branch of the plot is indispensable, so the cost of shooting the interactive film may be several times that of the traditional film. It is undoubtedly a major pressure for the later broadcast and marketing. Nevertheless, the popularity of interactive films continues.
Black Mirror: Bandersnatch (Appendix28) is a good example. In 2018, Netflix released Black Mirror: Bandersnatch, an interactive “choose your own adventure” film. As soon as it was released, fans began to interpret its narrative branches, analyze its symbolism, and look for its Easter eggs. The audience must watch the episode step by step online on Netflix without offline download or progress bar. In the process of watching, two options will pop up on the screen at any time to let the audiences decide the next action of the hero, and the choice of each step will affect the different development of the story. Just like many films will have multiple ending versions, it has also made several more versions of the plot, which is an interactive way for the audiences to choose the plot during the watching process. In 1984, Stefan, a programmer who lost his mother when he was young, wanted to develop a game adapted from the novel Bandersnatch. It is also interactive. Players only need to choose one from the other all the time to make the game develop. His idea won the recognition of the game company, and the boss asked Stefan to make the game. But in the process of writing the game, Stefan gradually fell into the illusion of struggling with his mother’s tragic past and blaming his father. Because he hid Stefan’s dolls, his mother missed one train and got on the next derailed train. What’s more, Stefan was seriously influenced by the novel and fell into the same skepticism as the novelist. In fact, the choice of the audiences is very important for the fate of the hero. The audience almost had to choose from the beginning. It was up to Stefan to decide which brand of cereal to eat for breakfast and which tape to listen to on the bus. With the continuous selection, the plot began to change significantly. What matters is not the ending, but what drives Stefan crazy. Interactive film can let the audience choose a character to follow up, which is to let them and the characters get the synchronous feeling. At the beginning, an audience replaced himself or herself with Stefan, a programmer, who constantly chose different options, tried to escape the illusion and try to find the truth. But gradually, he realized that he was under the control of others, and that person was a random audience in front of the screen. That is to say, the “devil” of the story is not the father, the psychologist, the so-called government conspiracy, but the audiences.
There are two aspects to evaluate the plot of an interactive films, one is the plot, the other is the choice of players. Whether the plot is complete, whether the branches are rich, and how much they touch the players’ emotions are very important. Even if it just recreates the classic films, the experience brought by the game to the audience is always unique. Only in the game can the audiences really have the opportunity to try to become the person in the play, to stand in the position of “he” or “she” to influence the development of the story and change the fate of “oneself”, rather than a spectator outside the play. So, whether it’s Black Mirror: Bandersnatch or any other similar works, it’s absolutely not advisable to treat them only by “watching”, which is tantamount to denying the fundamental value of interactive films.

5. Conclusion

Films and games are highly dependent on technology, have strong momentum of development, and have commonalities in art forms, production methods, entertainment hotspots and other aspects, but they also have great complementarities. These similarities and complementarities provide a solid foundation for their industrial cooperation. Nowadays, they have become the favorite form of entertainment for young people. Although decisive words can cause misunderstanding in an academic paper, there is no doubt that games and films have influenced and integrated each other.
In this paper, the five main methods about the interaction between games and films mark that their boundaries are gradually crossed. In the early stage of film development, its narrative is linear, that is to say, it abides by the rules. In fact, the films also need to learn from the non-linear narrative structure in the games because the traditional linear narrative structure has reached its ceiling. Narrative structure is often used as a skeleton to support the overall framework of the games. The non-linear narrative structure can not only promote each other’s play, but also control the players’ emotions and strengthen the immersion of the games. Similarly, it can achieve the same effect in the film. Secondly, no matter in the games or in the films, FPV can make the players or the audience have a strong sense of substitution. On the other hand, films made from the FPV are easy to annoy the audiences, because they think that the shaking camera caused their vertigo. Thirdly, in the process of game and movie integration, IP adaptation is the most familiar way. Nowadays, more and more game companies are no longer relying on games to make profits, but to develop large-scale IP based on a well-known game, and to develop film forms under this IP. A large number of game IP has been adapted into films, but there are few successful examples. To a certain extent, although IP has the favor of capital and a large number of fans, the careless treatment will not make IP obtain huge economic benefits. Moreover, the sound effect and animation in the games can be used for reference by the films to update the shooting techniques. Finally, interactive film is the most popular way to blend the two. Its disadvantages are the most. It’s very difficult to write interactive films. In addition, it’s not conducive to the growth of interactive films without a certain profit model. However, it can continue to be improved as the latest extension mode of games and films integration. At the same time, other ways are not without disadvantages. When games and films have reached a certain stage, their integration and future promotion are necessary and need to be taken into consideration.
For example, in the initial stage of IP development, relevant personnel need to consider how to develop films and how to design games. While ensuring the IP characteristics, relevant personnel would better find some combination points and extend each other. In marketing, relevant personnel can even consider to let users participate in, according to the needs of users, constantly improve the film plot and game content, so as to better meet the needs of the public. Besides, in marketing and promotion, the game industry and film industry should cooperate with each other to jointly improve the public’s attention to IP. Generally speaking, there are two ways to improve these conditions. The first way is to find a better profit model. Secondly, content is the key to success. These approaches can also be used to improve other conditions. The deep integration of film and game is the general trend of pan-entertainment industry in the future. Under this trend, new forms of film and game are likely to appear in the future. Two industries are entering a more mature period of in-depth transformation. Many companies, from the game business, film business, IP reserves, industrial chain resources, integration capabilities and other aspects have a stronger strength and excellent collaborative interaction ability. It can be predicted that as the driving force of the collision between film and game, the integration of the two will stimulate the emerging cultural industry to usher in the market explosion again.

6.Bibliographies

Adrienne Shaw.2010. What Is Video Game Culture? Cultural Studies and Game Studies. Games and Culture, Vol 5, Issue 4.
Amy Watson.2019.Global box office revenue from 2005 to 2018,viewed November 2, 2019, https://www.statista.com/statistics/271856/global-box-office-revenue/
Abu Dhabi.2019. Capitalism with a Human Face: Neoliberal Ideology in Neill Blomkamp’s District 9. Film-Philosophy,23.1, pp.1–16.
Bordwell, D. and Thompson, K. 2013. Film Art: An Introduction, 10th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill
Christina Gough.2018.Value of the global video games market 2012-2021,viewed November 2, 2019, https://www.statista.com/statistics/246888/value-of-the-global-video-game-market/
Cohendet, R., Matthieu Perreira, D.S., Gilet, A. & Callet, P.L. 2017, “Emotional interactive movie: adjusting the scenario according to the emotional response of the viewer”, EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies, vol. 4, no. 10.
Consumer & Entertainment Services.2018.Video Games Revenue Forecast: 2018–2023,viewed November 2, 2019, https://ovum.informa.com/resources/product-content/video-games-revenue-forecast-201823
David Greenspan.2014.Video Games and IP: A Global Perspective, viewed November 2, 2019, https://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2014/02/article_0002.html
David Sorfa. 2016. What is Film-Philosophy? Film-Philosophy, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp.1466-4615.
Emanuela Marchetti, Andrea Valente. 2015. What happened to non-linear narrative? A pedagogical reflection. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.
Fukuta, J. & Morgan, J. 2018, “First-person perspective video to enhance simulation”, The Clinical Teacher, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 231-235.
Hadrien Salat, Roberto Murcio, Elsa Arcaute. 2017. Multifractal methodology. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Volume 473, 1, pp.467-487.
Heinrich S. Domingo. 2017. Archiving Asia Through Films.APP.Volume9, Issue3, pp.519-521.
Jia Li, Ed White. 2017. The game is on: protecting IP in video games. Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal.
James E. Cutting. 2016. Narrative theory and the dynamics of popular movies. PB&R, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 1713-1743.
Jehoshua Eliashberg, Thorsten Hennig-Thurau, Charles B. Weinberg, Berend Wierenga. 2016. Of video games, music, movies, and celebrities. International Journal of Research in Marketing, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp.241-245.
Margaret Kartomi. 2014. Concepts, Terminology and Methodology in Music Performativity Research. Musicology Australia, Volume 36, Issue 2: Music Performance and Performativity, pp189-208.
Ma, B. & Reibman, A.R. 2018, “Viewing Experience Model of First-Person Videos”, Journal of Imaging, vol. 4, no. 9.
Pañeda, X.G., Garcia, R., Lobo, P.G., Cabrero, S., Melendi, D. & Arciniegas, J.L. 2015, “Multimedia content distribution of an online Social TV game over IP-based networks”, Telecommunication Systems, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 345-356.
Neil Cohn. 2016. Narrative conjunction’s junction function: The interface of narrative grammar and semantics in sequential images. Journal of Pragmatics, Volume 88, pp.105-132.
Okkinara, E., Kilteni, K., Blom, K.J. & Slater, M. 2016, “First Person Perspective of Seated Participants Over a Walking Virtual Body Leads to Illusory Agency Over the Walking”, Scientific Reports (Nature Publisher Group), vol. 6, pp. 28879.
Paaßen, B., Morgenroth, T. & Stratemeyer, M. 2017, “What is a True Gamer? The Male Gamer Stereotype and the Marginalization of Women in Video Game Culture”, Sex Roles, vol. 76, no. 7-8, pp. 421-435.
Pomerance, M., Barton Palmer, R. (eds) 2016.Thinking in the Dark. Cinema, Theory, Practice: Rutgers UP, New Brunswick.
Rohrbach, A., Torabi, A., Rohrbach, M., Tandon, N., Pal, C., Larochelle, H., Courville, A. & Schiele, B. 2017, “Movie Description”, International Journal of Computer Vision, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 94-120.
Rochelle Cade, Jasper Gates. 2017. Gamers and Video Game Culture: An Introduction for Counselors. The Family Journal, Vol 25, Issue 1.
Selen, E. 2015, “Cybernetic narrative”, Kybernetes, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1380-1387.
Solum, L.B. 2017, “Originalist Methodology”, The University of Chicago Law Review, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 269-295.
Sung-Joo Lim, Julie A. Fiez, Lori L. Holta. 2019. Role of the striatum in incidental learning of sound categories. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
Stephanie Bramley, Sally M. Gainsbury. 2015. The Role of Auditory Features Within Slot-Themed Social Casino Games and Online Slot Machine Games. Journal of Gambling Studies, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp. 1735–1751.
Xinhua.2017.Global box office hits record $38.6 billion in 2016: movie lobby group, viewed November 2, 2019, http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-03/23/c_136151270.htm
Yücelyigit, S. & Aral, N. 2016, “The Effects of Three Dimensional (3D) Animated Movies and Interactive Applications on Development of Visual Perception of Preschoolers”, Egitim ve Bilim, vol. 41, no. 188.

7.Filmographies
Black Mirror: Bandersnatch, David Slade,2018
Cloverfield, Drew Goddard,2008
Garfield, Peter Hewitt,2004
District 9, Neill Blomkamp,2009
Detroit: Become Human, David Cage,2018
Far Cry, Uwe Boll,2008.
God of Gamblers, Jing Wong,1989
Hitman, Among Friends,2007
Inception, Christopher Nolan,2010
Kung Fu, Stephen Chow,2004
Memento, Christopher Nolan ,2000
Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time, Mike Newell,2010
Pokémon Detective Pikachu, Rob Letterman,2019
Run Lola Run, Tom Tykwer,1988
Resident Evil, Paul Anderson,2002
Ready Player One, Steven Allan Spielberg,2018
Super Mario Bros, Annabel Jankel, Rocky Morton,1993
Silent Hill, Christophe Gans,2006.
Sin City, Robert Rodriguez, Frank Miller, Quentin Tarantino,2005
Tomb Raider, Simon West,2001
Warcraft, Duncan Jones,2016.

8.Appendices

Interview A
Interviewer: Good morning, may I have a simple interview with you?
Interviewee A: Of course, I’m very interested. What is it about?
Interviewer: The topic of the interview is about video games and films. What’s your first impression of them?
Interviewee A: Recently, I just watched Gemini Man starring Willard Christopher Smith Jr. It’s wonderful. Can you imagine a 51-year-old killer meeting a 21-year-old? It is the innovation of film technology. In addition, among our small groups, Tencent’s PUBG is a shooting game that we all pay attention to, similar to CS, but it is more exciting. In the game, players need to collect all kinds of resources on the game map, and confront other players in the shrinking security area, so that they can survive to the end.
Interviewer: Wow, you’re addicted to it. What factors do you think make you interested in it? You know, PUBG.
Interviewee A: Its first-person view can allow you to experience immersively. Moreover, its sound effect is really great. Lots of weapons to choose from, AK47, bombs, knives, etc. You can become teammates with real friends or strangers from other regions to fight against other players. I’m really fascinated by it.
Interviewer: It seems that you are familiar with both films and games. Do you know that they have started to influence each other?
Interviewee A: It seems so. To be honest, I’m a bit vague. Can I give you a hint?
Interviewer: Do you know Pokémon Detective Pikachu? It’s a film adapted from the game.
Interviewee A: Oh, it reminds me of many classic Nintendo games, Super Mario Bros, Contra and so on. I don’t know if they are also adapted into film. I need to search.
Interviewer: In fact, there are, but some have succeeded and some have failed. As the old saying goes, everything has two sides.
Interviewee A: It suddenly occurred to me that they really influenced each other. That is, they are all in the same lucrative business. In my impression, the profits unit of the game industry and the film industry are all base on a hundred million.
Interviewer: It’s true that they can all make huge economic profits, so the others, you know?
Interviewee A: I think I should go back to find the relevant information.
Interviewer: Thank you so much for your interview.
Interviewee A: You’re welcome!

Interview B
Interviewer: Nice to meet you!
Interviewee B: Nice to meet you, too!
Interviewer: You seem to be very knowledgeable, because you are wearing glasses, maybe you will be familiar with the topic of my interview. My interview topic is whether you know the blending of games and movies.
Interviewee B: It’s a very common phenomenon. Now, most of the popular films draw on the elements of the game. Many famous game IP is adapted into movies as a way, such as Warcraft. It is the Bible of generations, that is to say, it has a large number of fans, so its box office has also been a basic guarantee, which is the source of director’s confidence. In addition, I’ve been focusing on an American play, which is also a very famous game. Now it’s played as an interactive film, Black Mirror: Bandersnatch. You know, it really suits me. I’ve always been a puzzle fan and a veteran mystery fan. In fact, I just heard that I haven’t experienced it myself.
Interviewer: It seems that you fully agree that the integration of the two has become an unchangeable trend.
Interviewee B: Undoubtedly! They also have to be integrated. There are too many ways of entertainment for modern people, which requires innovation in the game and film industry. The demand of the market and the attention of the capital make them take a wise way to influence each other.
Interviewer: My first impression is not wrong. You are very knowledgeable indeed.
Interviewee B: You are flattering me. I just analyze video games and films from my daily experience, not like scholars who specialize in them. Strictly speaking, my understanding of the specific situation of their integration is not very comprehensive.
Interviewer: I think you know a lot.
Interviewee B: It’s nice talking with you, but I’m still busy. I’m afraid it’s over.
Interviewer: OK, thank you sincerely!
Interviewee B: Have a great time. Goodbye!

Interview C
Interviewer: Hello, nice day!
Interviewee C: As long as you keep in a good mood, the weather will always be good. Are you going to interview me? Tell me, what’s the theme?
Interviewer: Video games and films.
Interviewee C: Very familiar topic, look at me, typical video game fans and film fans. Do you want to ask what are the most impressive video games and movies? That’s too much to say for a while.
Interviewer: I’m happy to listen, and I want you to talk about which ways they influence each other.
Interviewee C: I can talk a lot about the first half. I’m afraid I don’t know much about the second half, because it’s a little academic
Interviewer: The last interviewer told me that it is a common phenomenon.
Interviewee C: I don’t know much about it, but I remember a film. It’s a film directed by Stephen Chow, Kung Fu. In the film, some exaggerated plots may be based on game factors, such as the chase scene between the hero and the landlady. The running hero’s legs are the same as the wheel. In addition, the compact sound effect is the same as the cue in the game.
Interviewer: Look, you know a lot.
Interviewee C: I just say what I think, and I don’t know anything else.
Interviewer: OK, you seem to be going out to play.
Interviewee C: Yes, I’m afraid our conversation is coming to an end.
Interviewer: Enjoy yourself!
Interviewee C: Thanks!

代写assignment

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Can you discuss the following 2 questions in APA format and cite references please? Thank you.

Can you discuss the following 2 questions in APA format and cite references please?

Thank you.

1) How can a leader or founder help create a strong culture in an organization? Can a leader eliminate culture? Explain.

2) What should managers of diverse work forces know about differences in values and spirituality among individuals?

领导风格评估代写 which do you favor and does that leadership style work in

Using your assessment of preferred leadership style, which do you favor and does that leadership style work in all realms of your life? Cite references to support your position. 

(Answer provided in approximately 100 words.)

美国历史代写 US History

Directions: Some of the most interesting parts of American history come from cultural elements of society such as music or poetry because these aspects often reflect particular periods, events, or issues that were once relevant in the past. For this paper, you first need to choose a song or a piece of poetry that is exemplary of a certain period or discusses an issue that might reflect on a particular era. For instance, in the 1960s there were several songs that reflected on or addressed the Vietnam war. Once you choose your song or piece of poetry online, you need to dedicate one page in your paper to show all of the words or lyrics. Then, in the following 4 (+) pages, you need to describe how the song or poem reflects on the time period (considering the central events, people, and important issues at hand during that period and what is raised in your choice of poem or song). You must utilize 2 primary sources from your textbook as well and you must utilize one outside source (online or alternate book). You can choose any poem or song from 1865-present.

.

Requirements:
4 pages + (Song or Poem is NOT included in the page count total)
12 point font
Double-Spaced
Times New Roman
1′ inch margins
In-text citations (no footnotes needed)

Remember, this is NOT an opinion paper. You have the autonomy to choose your topic, but you must not use sentences in your paper such as I think” or I like” or I believe.” You can make definitive statements without using I” throughout.

Your paper will be graded by a rubric and in the following categories: grammar, structure, historical context, clarity, and examples. Late papers WILL NOT be accepted. Plagiarism of any kind will result in a ZERO grade and will be reported accordingly.

.

Write one or two paragraphs in which you address the following points regarding your final project(daycare).

Write one or two paragraphs in which you address the following points regarding your final project(daycare).

What kinds of unwanted reactions might you encounter when trying to convince the business committee to accept your proposal for a new service? what steps can you take to ensure you convey the purpose of your message to the audience?

Draft an informative email to one person on the committee and a positive email to another person on the committee. In the emails explain the purpose of your presentation. Explain how these two emails different.

管理计划书代写 Formulae to have established short-term and long-

Provide your senior managers with a summary as to why it is important for Formulae to have established short-term and long-term goals when establishing its management plan for the Guatemala and Mexico expansions. Please include the following:

**Discuss the importance of long-term and short-term goals and why they are vital in setting direction for the company.

**Provide your senior managers a summary explaining why it is important for Formulae to have short-term and long-term goals to deal with cultural barriers and diversity for the Guatemala and Mexico expansions.

**Discuss the pitfalls if the company fails to plan short-term and long-term goals in advance and for a mechanism coping with the cultural barriers and diversity issues.

**Can these goals be changed after the plan is developed? If so, what impacts could these changes have on the company?

FASHION CLOTHING代写 BOUTIQUE, WHICH OFFER CUSTOM MADE & TAILORING SERVICE

Develop the strategic objectives for your business ( FASHION CLOTHING BOUTIQUE, WHICH OFFER CUSTOM MADE & TAILORING SERVICE) in the format of a balanced scorecard.The strategic objectives are measures of attaining your vision and mission. As you develop them consider the vision, mission, and values for your business and the outcomes of your SWOTT analysis. Consider the following four quadrants of the balanced scorecard when developing your strategic objectives:

· Shareholder Value or Financial Perspective, includes strategic objectives in areas such as:

oMarket share

oRevenues and costs

oProfitability

oCompetitive position

· Customer Value Perspective, includes strategic objectives in areas such as:

oCustomer retention or turnover

oCustomer satisfaction

oCustomer value

· Process or Internal Operations Perspective, includes strategic objectives in areas such as:

oMeasure of process performance

oProductivity or productivity improvement

oOperations metrics

· Learning and Growth (Employee) Perspective, includes strategic objectives in areas such as:

oEmployee satisfaction

oEmployee turnover or retention

oLevel of organizational capability

oNature of organizational culture or climate

oTechnological innovation

Develop at least three strategic objectives for each of the following four balanced scorecard areas identified above (Financial, Customer, Process, Learning and Growth). Your objectives should be selected, in part, based on an evaluation of a number of potential alternatives to the issues and/or opportunities identified in the SWOTT Analysis paper and table you completed in Week Three. Base your solutions on a ranking of alternative solutions that includes an identification of potential risks and mitigation plans, and a stakeholder analysis that includes mitigation and contingency strategies. You should also incorporate the ethical implications of your solutions into your selection.

· For each strategic objective, develop a metric and target using a balanced scorecard format. (For example, a strategic objective in the shareholder or Financial Perspective is to increase market share. A metric to actually measure this strategic objective of market share increase is, The percentage of increase in market share.” The target is the specific number to be achieved in a particular time period. The target for the metric of Increase market share” could be Increase market share by 2% for each of the next 3 years” of an increase of 2% per year for 3 years.)

Write a 900-word summary that explains your critical thinking on how you derived your objectives from your vision, mission, values, and SWOTT analysis.

Format paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Patient Safety代写

Annotated Bibliography. topic: Patient Safety. One page with cover page, APA style

Document Preview:

This Provisional PDF corresponds to the article as it appeared upon acceptance. Fully formatted PDF and full text (HTML) versions will be made available soon. What are the safety risks for patients undergoing treatment by multiple specialties: a retrospective patient record review study BMC Health Services Research 2013, 13:497 doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-497 Rebecca J Baines (r.baines@vumc.nl) Martine C de Bruijne (mc.debruyne@vumc.nl) Maaike Langelaan (m.langelaan@nivel.nl) Cordula Wagner (c.wagner@nivel.nl) ISSN 1472-6963 Article type Research article Submission date 20 May 2013 Acceptance date 19 November 2013 Publication date 28 November 2013 Article URL http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/13/497 Like all articles in BMC journals, this peer-reviewed article can be downloaded, printed and distributed freely for any purposes (see copyright notice below). Articles in BMC journals are listed in PubMed and archived at PubMed Central. For information about publishing your research in BMC journals or any BioMed Central journal, go to http://www.biomedcentral.com/info/authors/BMC Health Services Research Š2013 Baines et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
What are the safety risks for patients undergoing treatment by multiple specialties: a retrospective patient record review study Rebecca J Baines1 Email: r.baines@vumc.nl Martine C de Bruijne1* * Corresponding author Email: mc.debruyne@vumc.nl Maaike Langelaan2 Email: m.langelaan@nivel.nl Cordula Wagner1,2 Email: c.wagner@nivel.nl 1 Department of Public and Occupational Health & EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center (VUmc), Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2 NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Attachments:

safety_articl.pdf

Monopoly

Monopoly Please respond to the following:

  • Identify a company in your local area that you would classify as a monopoly. Explain why you classified the company as a monopoly, and state how the company relates to at least two (2) characteristics of that particular market.
  • Discuss one advantage and one disadvantage of having the government regulate monopolies. Provide an example in your response.

Market Entry and Monopolistic Competition� Please respond to the following:

  • From the e-Activity article, explain your position on whether or not Apple is stifling competition and monopolizing the tablet market. Examine the type of market structure within which Apple operates. Support your answer by relating to each of the characteristics described in Chapter 8 of your textbook.
  • Based on the characteristics of the referenced in the first part of this discussion, determine two to three (2-3) ways in which potential competition would affect Apple’s ability to gain its share of the market. Provide support for your response

本地法律问题集代写 回答您本地法律的一些提问

Your local town is addressing the following issues in its law-making:

1. Should people under 18 be subjected to legal curfews or restricted driving privileges?

2. Should libraries be required to install filtering software or otherwise censor the materials that they provide?

3. Should insurance companies in your state be required to pay for breast reconstruction, birth control pills, or Viagra?

4. Should the use of camera phones be banned in local gymnasiums or other locations?

As an active citizen, you ask to research and present to the town’s citizens one of the above issues. The governing body has agreed and asks that your presentation be specifically designed to show citizens of the community how and why one of the issues above is controversial and how to be educated consumers of information regarding this issue. They ask this because the citizens will be voting on these issues in future elections and the governing body wants its citizens to be properly educated on these topics.

In your presentation, make sure you include the following:

Remember, you are giving a presentation to an audience that does not know much, if anything, about your topic.

  • Explain the issue, including definitions of common terms involved in the issue and why this issue is controversial.
  • Identify and describe three to four different conclusions that are drawn when arguments related to the issue are made.
  • Summarize the kinds of evidence typically used for each constructed argument related to the issue. Be sure to discuss the reasons these kinds of evidence are used and/or are most effective.
  • Analyze how each of the different conclusions regarding the topic use particular evidence to support their claims, paying particular attention to analyzing how the conclusions rely on different facts, different sources of evidence, or different reasoning from other conclusions. In other words, explain why certain groups would use a particular type of evidence while an opposing group would use a different type of evidence, or how two groups can represent that same data in two completely different ways.
  • Utilize at least three different sources and properly cite them throughout the presentation.

The presentation should be 8 to 10 slides long, and each slide should have complete, formally written slide notes (proper grammar, APA formatting, and academic tone) for record-keeping purposes and in the event there are citizens who are deaf or hard-of-hearing at your presentation. The slide notes must include proper APA citation of sources, proper paragraphing, and proper grammar and tone. Visually, the slides should be easy to read. A properly APA-formatted reference page must be the last slide of your presentation. See the rubric for more specific requirements of the presentation.

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